By A. Rathgar. Medaille College.
Thus suhagra 100 mg without a prescription, in the experimental data there is a clear positive dynamics of Reamberin complex influence on the serum and urine protein levels in experimental acute renal injury cheap 100mg suhagra amex. These values allow to further explore of nephroprotective order 100 mg suhagra mastercard, antihypoxic properties. The basis of the secondary prevention is the use medications of long-acting penicillin. In accordance with international recommendations, benzathine benzylpenicillin-G is assigned by deep intramuscular injection once every 4 weeks (in some cases, once every 3 weeks). Children weighing 20-30 kg injected a dose of 600 units, and for all other age patient groups injected dose of 1200000 units. If the patient has allergy to penicillin, macrolides secondary prevention is carried out in cycles of 10 days each month Children who have had rheumatic fever without carditis, secondary prevention is carried out for 5 years or until the age of 21 years old. This inflammation leads to a violation of the secretory, motor, and often the endocrine functions of the stomach and duodenum. Prescribe colloidal bismuth subcitrate in a dose of 4-8 mg/kg per day in combination with amoxicillin at 25 mg/kg and nifuratel 15 mg/kg for 7 days. In the presence of an allergy to penicillin is used in the scheme clarithromycin therapy at a dose of 7. Blockers H2-histamine receptors are used in the schema therapy for children up to 12 years. Ranitidine is prescribed for 75-150 mg at twice a day for 20 minutes before eating or for famotidine 10-20 mg twice a day regardless of the meal. The drug is administered for 7-10 days and then the dose is reduced by 2 times and the treatment continues for 2-3 weeks. In children over 12 years prescribe triple therapy with the aim of eradication of Н. Four- component therapy includes nifuratel, colloidal bismuth subcitrate in combination with amoxycillin or clarithromycin. Omeprazole appoint 10-20 mg (pantoprazole 20-40 mg per day) once a day in the morning before eating for 7-10 days. Four- component therapy is indicated for the ineffectiveness three- component therapy of first-line therapy. The main cause of death, even working age is coronary heart disease due to the development cardiosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is a disease characterized by lesions of artery walls due to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques that have varying degrees of narrowing the lumen, leading to acute or chronic reduction of blood flow to vital authorities. For pharmacotherapy of atherosclerosis use following groups of drugs: statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants and other lipid- lowering agents. Of the group of statins are recommend following medication: lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, rosuvastatin. In addition, cholesterol- lowering statins are used in combination with other lipid-lowering agents: inedzhi (a combination of 20 mg of simvastatin and 10 mg of ezetimibe), and asia-ator (a combination of 10 mg of atorvastatin and 10 mgezetimibu). Quite often, the choice is between atorvastatin and rosuvastatin – modern synthetic statins, has a marked effect lipid-lowering effect. A number of studies have been conduct directly comparing the original atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. The aim of our study was to examine the results of a multicenter study compared the effectiveness of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Rosuvastatin has some advantage over atorvastatin in lowering total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. It has been proved that long-term use rosuvastatin 40mg reduces the diameter of the atherosclerotic plaque in the vessel. Rosuvastatin had significant advantages over atorvastatin in influencing the level of inflammatory markers, as well as the progression of atherosclerosis. Atorvastatin has the largest list of indications for use for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Rosuvastatin has registered indications for use - secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Having conducted a comparative analysis of the effectiveness of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in the pharmacotherapy of atherosclerosis, we can conclude that both drugs are approve for use and do not have clear benefits to each other. The study of the current standards of care for patients with acute respiratory viral infections. We analyzed the articles, adapted clinical guidelines based on evidence, unified clinical protocols of emergency medical care for acute respiratory infections, including influenza. For each type of virus is the most difficult lesions characteristic of a particular department of the upper respiratory tract with the development of characteristic symptoms. Etiotropic antiviral pharmacotherapy was conduct with influenza (A and B) drugs from the group neuraminidase (oseltamivir, zanamivir). Apply the following drugs: antipyretic agents (ibuprofen, acetominiphen), antihistamines for systemic use (chloropyramine, clemastine, loratadine, dezloratadine, cetirizine), decongestants and other drugs for topical application in the case of diseases of the nose (oxymetazoline, xilometazoline, nafazoline, tramazoline, tetryzoline), antiseptics used for treatment of throat (ambazone, chlorhexidine), expectorants (guaifenesin, marshmallow root, leaf ivy), mucolytic drugs (acetylcysteine, bromhexinum, ambroxol, carbocisteine), antitussive agents (glaucine hydrobromide, okseladyn). A specific vaccine prophylaxis was carry out under the threat of epidemic (pandemic) Influenza. In 2015-2016 years in Ukraine registered the following vaccines: Vaxigrip, Influvak. Opioids – a substance derived from the opium poppy, and their synthetic analogs having similar effects. Opioids have the ability to cause drug dependence and are characterized by a strong desire to use them, they also cause tachyphylaxis, which sooner or later leads to poisoning and overdose. The aim of our study was to investigate modern rational pharmacotherapy for opiate poisoning. We was study the adapted clinical guidelines based on evidence, articles, unified clinical protocols of emergency medical care and pharmacotherapy for poisoning opiates. The main symptoms of acute intoxication by opiates are dizziness, tinnitus, dry mouth, nausea, sometimes vomiting. The skin of the face and torso hyperemic or pale, sometimes puffiness of the face, itching and rash. The body temperature is reduce, skin feels wet and cold, cold extremities is observe. Pharmacotherapy of opioid addicts consists of three main phases: detoxification (mild withdrawal syndrome); somatoneurological correction of mental disorders and primary preventive treatment; supporting preventive treatment. For the relief of withdrawal symptoms using integrated circuit with psychopharmacological agents, wegetotropic drugs, muscle relaxants, painkillers, treat with prolonged medicated sleep (with the use of anesthesia: thiopental sodium, sodium hydroxybutyrate); replacement therapy with the use of narcotic analgesics and their gradual cancellation (methadone, buprenorphine programs, the legalization of soft drugs and delivery of treated persons drugs addiction), rapid opioid detoxification. The main objectives of the second phase of pharmacotherapy are correction somatovegetativnyh postabstinent violations in the form of asthenic syndrome, vegetative and psychopathological disorders (neuroleptics: haloperidol, periciazine, amitriptyline, thioridazine hydrochloride; antiepileptic: karbmazepin, levomepromazine, analgesics: flupirtine maleate; antispasmodics: drotaverinum; alpha-blockers: pirroxan). The basis of third stage constitute non-pharmacological methods, especially psychotherapy. Thus, the main directions of modern pharmacotherapy of opiate poisoning are detoxification, somatoneurological correction of mental disorders and primary preventive treatment; supporting preventive treatment.
Discovery and characterization of a novel inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease-13 that reduces cartilage damage in vivo without joint fbroplasia side effects proven suhagra 100 mg. A new class of potent matrix metalloproteinase 13 inhibitors for poten- tial treatment of osteoarthritis: evidence of histologic and clinical effcacy without mus- culoskeletal toxicity in rat models purchase suhagra 100 mg without a prescription. Identifcation of specifc hemopexin-like domain residues that facilitate matrix metalloproteinase collagenolytic activity buy discount suhagra 100 mg. Production of multivalent protein binders using a self-trimerizing collagen-like peptide scaffold. Triple-helical transition-state analogs: a new class of selective matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. Matrix metalloproteinase triple-helical peptidase activities are differen- tially regulated by substrate stability. The roles of substrate thermal stability and P2 and P1′ subsite identity on matrix metalloproteinase triple-helical peptidase activity and collagen specifcity. Modulation of triple-helical stability and subsequent melanoma cel- lular responses by single-site substitution of fuoroproline derivatives. A cyclic antimicrobial peptide produced in primate leukocytes by the ligation of two truncated alpha-defensins. Human alpha-defensins neutralize anthrax lethal toxin and protect against its fatal consequences. Retrocyclins kill bacilli and germinating spores of Bacillus anthracis and inactivate anthrax lethal toxin. Structure of a peptide inhibitor bound to the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Insulin mimetic action of synthetic phosphorylated peptide inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3. Sequence-based design of kinase inhibitors applicable for therapeutics and target identifcation. Polypeptide binding specifcities of Saccharomyces cere- visiae oligosaccharyltransferase accessory proteins Ost3p and Ost6p. Neoglycopeptides as inhibitors of oligosaccharyl transferase: insight into negotiating product inhibition. Protein native-state stabilization by placing aromatic side chains in N-glycosylated reverse turns. Epoxyethylglycyl peptides as inhibitors of oligosaccha- ryltransferase: double-labelling of the active site. Active-site-directed inhibition of asparagine N-glycosyltransferases with epoxy-peptide derivatives. Inhibition of telomerase activity by a cell-penetrating peptide nucleic acid construct in human melanoma cells. Primary structure of a potent endogenous dopa-containing inhibitor of phenol oxidase from Musca domestica. Regulation of tyrosinase synthesis and its processing in the hair follicular melanocytes of the mouse during eumelanogenesis and phaeome- lanogenesis. Topical application of a protein kinase C inhibitor reduces skin and hair pigmentation. Solid-phase synthesis of kojic acid-tripeptides and their tyrosi- nase inhibitory activity, storage stability, and toxicity. Discovery and characterization of a nonphosphorylated cyclic peptide inhibitor of the peptidylprolyl isomerase, Pin1. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates amyloid precursor protein pro- cessing and amyloid-beta production. Membrane permeable cyclic peptidyl inhibitors against human Peptidylprolyl Isomerase Pin1. Conformationally locked isostere of phosphoSer-cis-Pro inhibits Pin1 23-fold better than phosphoSer-trans-Pro isostere. Histone deacetylase inhibitors: molecular mechanisms of action and clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. Potent and selective inhibition of human immunodefciency virus type 1 transcription by piperazinyloxoquinoline derivatives. Long-term treatment with novel glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor improves glucose homeostasis in ob/ob mice: molecular char- acterization in liver and muscle. Intraneuronal delivery of protein kinase C pseudosubstrate leads to growth cone collapse. Evidence of zeta protein kinase C involvement in polymor- phonuclear neutrophil integrin-dependent adhesion and chemotaxis. Docking sites on substrate proteins direct extracellular signal-regulated kinase to phosphorylate specifc residues. A protein kinase C translocation inhibitor as an isozyme-selective antagonist of cardiac function. Protein kinase C-epsilon is responsible for the protection of preconditioning in rabbit cardiomyocytes. C2 region-derived peptides inhibit translocation and function of beta protein kinase C in vivo. Most people’s general impression of peptides is that they are large molecules that are easily digested by proteases. These two important draw- backs mean that peptides are often considered as being less stable with low oral bioavailability. Consequently, administration by injection is often required, and the peptides are readily inactivated by peptidases and cleared from the body. Moreover, they have a relatively higher risk of immunogenic effects when compared with small drug molecules. Owing to their relatively larger size and often hydrophilic nature, sol- ubilization, and the delivery of peptide drugs across membranes become challenges. Cost-wise, the synthesis of peptide drugs is often considered more expensive if one associates cost with molecular size. Viewed from the opposite side, where a detriment is reinterpreted as a beneft, pep- tide drugs hold several key advantages over small drug molecules. Therefore, peptide drugs are expected to be very potent because when compared to small drug molecules, peptide drugs have high activity and high specifcity due to very few unspecifc bindings to nontargeted sites. On the same line of reasoning, pep- tide drugs would have fewer drug–drug interactions, although, as previously stated, they have an increased risk of immunogenic effects. Considering that peptide drugs are large molecules composed mainly of natural amino acids with high target speci- fcity and are easily degraded by peptidases, peptide drugs would in theory exhibit lower toxicity than small drug molecules. Likewise, considering that peptide drugs have diffculty crossing membranes, they are less likely to accumulate in tissues and thus have a lower risk of adverse drug reactions over time.
Lower doses are appro- priate for patients with hepatic impairment; no adjustment for renal impairment is required Pharmacokinetics Onset of action: 30 to 50 minutes Absorption: well absorbed orally Distribution: mean volume of distribution: Children older than 6 years: similar to adults on a per-kilogram basis Adults: 21 L/kg Maximum effect: peak serum concentration at 6 to 12 hours Half-life: terminal half-life 30 to 50 hours Duration: ≥ 24 hours with routine dosing Protein binding: 93% Metabolism: in the liver cheap suhagra 100mg without prescription, with 90% metabolized to inactive metabolites Clearance: in children older than 6 years of age discount suhagra 100mg fast delivery, weight-adjusted clearance is similar to adults 96 S purchase suhagra 100 mg free shipping. Elimination: 10% of unchanged drug and 60% of metabolites are excreted in the urine. Amlodipine is not removed by dialysis Monitoring Parameters Blood pressure and liver enzymes. Adverse Effects Cardiovascular: More common: flushing, palpitations, peripheral edema Rare: hypotension, dysrhythmia, chest pain, syncope, peripheral ischemia, vasculitis, myocardial infarction Respiratory: dyspnea, pulmonary edema, epistaxis Central nervous system: More common: headache, dizziness, somnolence, fatigue Less common: insomnia, vertigo, depression, anxiety Gastrointestinal: nausea, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, dysphagia, pancreatitis, vomiting, xerostomia, gingival hyper- plasia Hepatic: jaundice, elevated liver enzymes Genitourinary: sexual dysfunction Neuromuscular and skeletal: muscle cramps, asthenia, arthralgia, myalgia, paresthesia, peripheral neuropathy, hypoesthesia, tremor Endocrine/metabolic: weight gain or loss, gynecomastia, hyperglycemia Hematological: thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, purpura Ophthalmological: diplopia, abnormal vision, eye pain, and conjunctivitis Cutaneous/peripheral: rash, pruritus, erythema multiforme, angioedema Other: tinnitus, diaphoresis, increased thirst Precautions In adult patients with severe coronary artery disease, both initiation of amlod- ipine therapy and increased dosing have been associated with increased severity and frequency of angina as well as acute myocardial infarction. Increased caution should be used in patients with impaired hepatic function because of amlodipine’s hepatic metabolism. Do not discontinue amlodipine abruptly in patients with angina or significant coronary artery disease. Vasodilators 97 Drug-Drug Interactions Concomitant administration of rifampin may decrease serum amlodipine concentration. As for all calcium channel-blocking agents, administration of calcium may mitigate the drug’s effect. Compatible Diluents/Administration Amlodipine tablets may be administered without regard to food, because food does not affect its bioavailability. Concomitant ingestion of grapefruit juice increased amlodipine peak serum concentration in some reports but not others. Calcium Channel Blockers: Nicardipine Indication Nicardipine is used in adults for the treatment of angina pectoris and hyper- tension. Thus, it decreases the intracellular concentration of calcium such that less calcium is available to contractile proteins in these cells. Relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle specifically treats anginal pain by increasing myocardial oxygen delivery. Once target blood pressure is achieved, decrease infusion rate to 3 mg/h or lowest rate to achieve desired blood pressure Pharmacokinetics Onset of action: Oral: 0. Bioavailability, oral dose, 35% Distribution: volume of distribution in adults, 8. Not removed by dialysis Monitoring Parameters Blood pressure, heart rate, liver function, and renal function. Contraindications Hypersensitivity to nicardipine or any component, and significant aortic stenosis. Adverse Effects Cardiovascular: vasodilation/flushing, tachycardia, palpitations, hypo- tension (6% with I. Neuromuscular and skeletal: asthenia, myalgia, malaise, tremor, hypoesthesia Endocrine/metabolic: hypokalemia (0. Precautions In adult patients with severe coronary artery disease, both initiation of nica- rdipine therapy and increased dosing have been associated with increased severity and frequency of angina. Abrupt withdrawal may cause rebound angina in patients with coronary artery disease. Drug-Drug Interactions Nicardipine affects several cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and, thus, has numerous drug interactions. Serum concentrations of the following drugs may be increased by nicardipine: cyclosporine, metoprolol, vecuronium (I. Lastly, nicardipine may decrease the serum concentra- tion or effects of common narcotic agents (e. Compatible Diluents/Administration For oral forms of nicardipine, administration of the drug with high-fat meals may decrease peak concentrations. Nicardipine is not compatible with 5% sodium bicarbonate, furosemide, heparin, or thiopental. Nicardipine to Control Mean Arterial Pressure After Cardiothoracic Surgery in Infants and Children. Other indications include hypertensive emergencies, pulmonary hypertension, and to improve coronary blood flow after cardiovascular surgery or transcatheter coronary revascularization. In pedi- atric patients, it is used primarily for treatment of hypertensive emergencies and after cardiovascular surgery (especially with cardiopulmonary bypass) to improve coronary blood flow and myocardial perfusion. Nitroglycerin seems to dilate veins more than arteries, although the coronary arteries respond well, resulting in improved myocardial oxygen delivery. Systemic venous dilation results in lower atrial filling pressures (preload) and ventricular end diastolic pressures; this effect reduces myocardial oxygen demand. Systemic arterial dilation also reduces myocardial oxygen demand by reducing afterload. Usual maximum dose is 5µg/kg/min, but doses to 20µg/kg/ min have been described Adults: Oral: 2. Can be used before activities that cause angina Ointment: 1 inch to 2 inches every 8 hours Patch: initial, 0. To minimize tolerance, a daily drug-free interval of 10 to 12h/day is recommended, along with the lowest effective dose possible. Tolerance may also be reversed with the administration of N-acetylcysteine Pharmacokinetics (Table 4-2) Distribution: volume of distribution in adults, 3 L/kg Half-life: 1 to 4 minutes Protein binding: 60% Metabolism: extensive first-pass; metabolized by red blood cells, blood vessel walls, and the liver Clearance: approximately 1 L/kg/min Elimination: inactive metabolites are excreted in the urine Table 4-2. Pharmacodynamics of various forms of nitroglycerin Dosage Form Onset (min) Duration I. Contraindications Hypersensitivity to nitroglycerin and organic nitrates (rare) or any component (adhesive in transdermal patches included); glaucoma; severe anemia; increased intracranial pressure; concurrent use of sildenafil; the I. Adverse Effects Cardiovascular: hypotension, reflex tachycardia, pallor, flushing, and cardiovascular collapse; acute cessation of therapy may cause severe hypotension, bradycardia, and acute coronary insufficiency Central nervous system: headache (most commonly reported side effect), dizziness, restlessness Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting Endocrine/metabolic: one I. Drug-Drug Interactions Nitroglycerin may antagonize the anticoagulant effect of heparin; thus, when nitroglycerin is discontinued, a reduction in heparin dose may be required. Alcohol and drugs that lower blood pressure, such as β-blockers and calcium channel blockers, may potentiate nitroglycerin’s hypotensive effect. Concomitant use of sildenafil may cause severe hypotension from excessive vasodilation. Multiple additional forms of nitroglycerin exist for oral (tablet, capsule, and aerosol) and topical (ointment and transdermal patch) administration (see, for example, Lexi-Comp’s Pediatric Dosage Handbook, 13th Edition, 20063 for additional details on these multiple formulations). Tolerance to Organic Nitrates: Mechanisms, Clinical Relevance, and Strategies for Prevention. Nitroprusside seems to cause more systemic arterial (at the arteriolar level) dilation than systemic venous dilation. Dosing Neonates (premature and full term) and infants: insufficient data on dosing exist for neonates and infants. In clinical practice, dosing guidelines developed for children are typically followed for infants 4. The dose is titrated to achieve the desired reduction in blood pressure by increasing in increments of 1µg/kg/min every 20 to 60 minutes. The dose is titrated to achieve the desired effect or until headache or nausea appear by increasing in increments of 0. Usual dose is 3µg/kg/min; maximum dose, 10µg/kg/min Pharmacokinetics Onset of action: less than 2 minutes (hypotensive effect) Half-life: parent drug, less than 10 minutes; thiocyanate, 2.
Liquid-liquid extraction (Chapter 27) mostly treats the subject theoretically and is supported by appropriate examples suhagra 100mg overnight delivery. Errors due to the volume change and effectiveness of an extraction have been dealt with adequately purchase suhagra 100mg visa. Various factors that influence solvent extraction discount suhagra 100mg amex, such as : temperature and inert solutes, pH ion-pair formation and synergistic extraction have been described. Size Exclusion Chromatography (Chapter 31) has also been included as a means of analysis for substances that undergo separation more or less as per their molecular size, viz. It is earnestly believed that ‘Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis’ will fulfill the entire requirements of both penultimate and final year students of B. It may also help the post-graduate students in their compulsory paper on ‘Modern Analytical Techniques’ to a great extent. Academicians and researchers engaged in the evaluation of pharmaceutical drug substances either in pure or dosage forms will also enormously benefit from ‘Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis’ by virtue of its ultimate goal of maintaining very high standards of quantitative analysis. Finally, I wish to record here my special thanks to the numerous colleagues and friends who have not only extended their invaluable help by providing me with relevant sources of material but also by taking an active participation in the discussion of various chapters. It is hoped that ‘Pharmaceutical Drug Analysis’ will soon prove to be an invaluable guide to both undergraduate and postgraduate students and to my esteemed colleagues in the teaching profession. Those working in Research & Development Laboratories, Quality Assurance Laboratories and Drug Testing laboratories will also find the book helpful in solving many of their intricate problems. Applications of Karl Fischer Method for Determination of Water in Pharmaceutical Analysis............................................................................................... Amperometric Titrations with Twin-Polarized Microelectrodes (Biamperometric Titrations or Dead-Stop-End-Point Method).................... To Distinguish and Characterize the pri-, sec- and tert-amine Salts from One Another............................................................................................ Determination of Specific Organic Compounds as Impurities in Official Pharmaceutical Substances............................................................... Medicinal chemists, pharmacologists, biochemists, analytical chemists and medical professionals have paved the way with their single goal objective to combat the sufferings of human beings. In this integrated effort the role of an analyst vis-a-vis the chemical purity of pharmaceutical substances and drugs made therefrom and finally the dosage forms that are usually available for direct patient’s usage, has become not only extremely crucial but also equally important and vital. As on date product safety has to be an integral part of all product research in pharmaceutical substances. Inspite of all the qualified successes of synthetic drug research achieved in the last four decades to combat infectious diseases of the more than 80,000 different ailments, unfortunately only about one third can be treated with drugs, most of them only symptomatically. In order to meet these challenges one needs to adopt novel approaches in pharmaceutical research. Both molecular biology and genetic engineering will be exploited duly in opening up new routes. It is, however, pertinent to mention here that pharmaceutical chemicals must maintain a very high degree of chemical purity. It is quite obvious that a state of absolute purity may not be achievable, but a sincere effort must be exercised to obtain the maximum freedom from foreign substances. Bearing in mind the exorbitant operational costs to attain the ‘highest standards’ of purity, perhaps some of these processes are not economically viable. Therefore, a compromise has got to be made to strike a balance between the purity of a substance at a reasonably viable cost and at the same time its purity e. In short, a host of impurities in pharmaceutical chemicals do occur that may be partially responsible for toxicity, chemical interference and general instability. In this chapter, the purity and management of pharmaceutical chemicals, would be discussed briefly so as to take adequate cognizance of the importance of standardization of these substances, in addition to their management by Official Methods. The standards for pharmaceutical chemicals and their respective dosage forms, as laid down in, various Official Compendia fulfil broadly the following three cardinal objectives, namely : (a) Broad-based highest attainable standard, (b) Biological response versus chemical purity, and (c) Offical standards versus manufacturing standards. A wide variation of active ingredients ranging between 90% in one sample and 110% (± 10 per cent limit) in another sample could invariably be observed. Therefore, it has become absolutely essential to lay down definite standards so as to ensure that : • Different laboratories may produce reasonably reproducible products. Examples : (i) Substances to be stored in well-closed, light-resistant containers e. It is a well-known fact that a pharmaceutical substance can be prepared by adopting different routes of synthesis based upon the dynamic ongoing research in the field of organic-reaction-mechanisms. Relentless efforts are exerted vigorously by reputed research laboratories across the world to look for shorter routes of synthesis bearing in mind the cost-effectiveness of the final product. Nevertheless, the latter product is more in demand because it is completely devoid of bromine residues in the final product. During the process of manufacture an unavoidable criterion is the loss of active ingredients. Therefore, all Official Standards for pharmaceutical chemicals and dosage forms should accomodate such losses caused due to loss in manufacture, unavoidable decomposition and storage under normal conditions for a stipulated period. Official standards with regard to dosage form and packs, preservation and prevention from contamination in a variety of pharmaceutical products, such as eye-drops, multidose injections and antiseptic creams (external application) that may be prone to spoilage with prolonged repetitive usage should be well defined. Hence, all pharmaceutical chemicals and finished products must rigidly conform to the laid-out standards in a particular country and are subjected to various checks at different levels either by Government/State owned drug testing laboratories or by Government/State approved drug testing laboratories. Official Compendia for pharmaceutical substances usually include the following parameters, namely : • Description of the Drug or Finished Product • Identification Tests • Physical Constants • Assay of Pharmaceutical Substances • Assay of Principal Active Ingredients in Formulated Dosage Forms • Limit Test • Storage Conditions 1. In other words, the accuracy and significance of measurements may be solely limited by the sampling process. Unless and until the sampling process is performed properly, it may give rise to a possible weak link in the interpretation of the analytical results. However, a good deal of the wisdom of the analyst supported by the application of statisical results and wealth of experience may go a long way in achieving reasonably accurate and reproducible results. Sampling Procedures Samples may be categorized broadly into four heads, namely : (a) Gross Sample : A sample that represents the whole lot and may vary from a few grams or less to several pounds based on the nature of the bulk material. For Solids Sampling of solid materials are comparatively more difficult than other materials because of the follow- ing three reasons, namely : (a) Variation in particle size. Sampling of solids can be best accomplished by adopting the following procedures : • To take 1/50 to 1/100th of the total bulk for gross samples. For Liquids Sampling of liquids may be carried out by following these procedures : • Small heterogenous liquid samples are first shaken thoroughly and then followed by immediate sampling. However, the latter method is preferred for obvious reasons since the analysis shall have a better hold on the accuracy and precision of the analysis. A few specific examples are stated below : (a) A 24 hour urine sample collections are usually more reliable than single specimens. For example : (a) A breathe sample may be collected by allowing the subject to blow into an evacuated bag. Errors The famous adage—‘to err is human to forgive divine’—literally means that it is natural for people to make mistakes.
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