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This should be followed by irrigation with saline solution of all parts of the peritoneal cavity until the effluent is clear buy 150mg cleocin free shipping. It has been noticed that if peritoneal lavage is made with antibiotic solution using kanamycin or bacitracin solution buy cleocin 150 mg cheap, the incidence of wound infection and general mortality is considerably reduced cleocin 150 mg on-line. Even postoperative peritoneal lavage with an antibiotic solution has been proved successful in patients with severe peritonitis who fail to improve despite correction of source of infection and adequate fluid therapy and systemic antibiotics. The irrigation catheters are placed during operation if postoperative antibiotic lavage is anticipated. But recently lots of controversial reports have been published and it has been shown that placement of drains in case of non-localised, generalised peritonitis is of no benefit In fact, presence of drains in such cases is harmful since it not only interferes with peritoneal defence mechanism, but also provides access for exogenous bacterial contamination. However drains are undoubtedly of great help in cases of localised peritoneal fluid collections. In case of right paramedian or transverse incision, the closure is performed in the usual fashion. A few layers of fine gauze soaked in antibiotic solutions are used to cover the subcutaneous tissue. All dressings including those within the wound are removed after 48 hours and are replaced with similar coverings. Delayed primary closure of the skin can be performed after 4 to 5 days if the wound remains healthy. A few surgeons are in the opinion of treating generalised peritonitis by leaving the abdomen completely open. The major difficulties with this technique are evisceration and poor efficacy of the subsequent healing wound. Urine output, pulse, blood pressure, temperature and blood gases are monitored frequently. When the results of antibiotic sensitivity of the peritoneal pus are available, due consideration should be given to change the antibiotic therapy to the most specific and least toxic of the sensitive drugs. The peculiar feature is that pain is conspicuous by absence and there is distension of the abdomen. When a patient complains of a central colicky abdominal pain following history of peritonitis, this complication should be thought of. It is more common following localised peritonitis, X-ray may reveal gas-filled small intestine with fluid levels. These are pelvic abscess and subphrenic abscess following generalised peritonitis. It is bounded posteriorly by the upper layer of the coronary ligament and the right triangular ligament, and to the left by the falciform ligament. It is bounded above by the lower layer of the coronary ligament, in front by the inferior surface of the right lobe of the liver and behind by the diaphragm and anterior surface of the right kidney. In recumbent position this is the lower most space of the body, so pus often accumulates in this space. Abscess in this space is caused by cholecystitis, perforated duodenal ulcer, appendicitis or following upper abdominal surgery. The common causes of abscess formation in this space is following operations on the stomach, the spleen or the splenic flexure of the colon. The lesser sac is communicated on the right through the forearm of Winslow with the greater sac. Abscess in this space usually develops from amoebic hepatitis or pyogenic liver abscess. That is why an old adage still holds good today — ‘pus somewhere, pus no where detected, that means under the diaphragm’. The patient was doing good, except recently he is again feeling indisposed with recurring or persistent fever. Fever is typically intermittent or spiking in character in the beginning, then it becomes progressively more persistent as the abscess matures. These are the result of transient episodes of blood stream invasion from the abscess. The patients sometimes complain of pain in the epigastric region or referred pain to the shoulder of the affected side due to irritation of the sensory fibres of the phrenic nerve at the diaphragm which is referred along the descending branches of the cervical plexus (C3, 4 and 5). Intensity of symptoms may be modified by administration of antibiotics, which suppresses the infection, although it fails to cure the abscess. So it is often preferable to discontinue antibiotic therapy when presence of subphrenic abscess is suspected. Examination of the chest is always important, as in majority of cases there may be evidence of basal effusion or empyema. Blood cultures may document septicaemia and may identify the organisms involved in the abscess. Scans using gallium (67Ga) have been used and have proved successful in localising subphrenic abscess. Radio-gallium collects in the areas of inflammation and in intra-abdominal abscesses. But it must be remembered that there is limitation of using this scan by the fact that this radioisotope is excreted through the colon and the colon content must be fully evacuated before localising accurately the abscess collection. Management— When suppuration and abscess have formed, surgical intervention is indicated to drain the abscess. As many patients are nutritionally depleted and septic, urgent preparation with attention to fluid resuscitation, parenteral nutrition, administration of antibiotics and appropriate monitoring measures should be instituted preoperatively. Usually computerised tomography is used to localise the abscess and to find the ‘window’ for needle and catheter insertion. The ‘window’ is that portion of the abscess which is in contact with the abdominal wall without any intervening viscera. Ultrasound is then used to guide the percutaneous needle, guide wire and ultimately the catheter. The incision is made from the tip of the 11th rib and carried obliquely and anteriorly parallel to the costal margin. The dissection is largely extraperitoneal until the abscess cavity either anteriorly or posteriorly located is approached. If the abscess is situated anteriorly on the left side, a similar subcostal incision may be employed as performed for the right subphrenic abscess. It is important in approaching the left subphrenic abscess to avoid injury to the spleen. If a swelling is detected in the subcostal region or in the loin indicating subphrenic abscess, an incision should be made over the site of maximum tenderness or over the area where oedema is maximum. Through this region it is possible to reach the abscess cavity without opening or contaminating the general peritoneal cavity.
Leakage may occur either into the peritoneal cavity or into the duodenum or even into the inferior vena cava cheap cleocin 150mg without prescription. Initially bleeding is into the retroperitoneal space generic 150mg cleocin with amex, where it may be contained for- a while before it proves fatal buy cleocin 150mg fast delivery. Straight X-ray of the abdomen is the most useful confirmatory investigation, which often shows a thin curved line of calcification in the wall of the sac. The lateral view is particularly helpful which more clearly shows the calcific rim or thin line of calcification in the wall of the aneurysm, which may be obscured in the anteroposterior view by the shadows of the vertebral bodies. Aortography is not without risk and may not be very informative since many aneurysms contain mural thrombus with a central lumen which approximates to that of a normal aorta and may mask the true size of the aneurysm. Previously it was used to establish relationship of the renal arteries with the aneurysm, but renal artery involvement is seen in only 1% of cases and there is no justification to do this investigation. However this investigation may be justified only when to be confirmed about the extent of a suspected extensive lesion and to exclude presence of small aneurysms. To know the involvement of the renal arteries by aneurysm these investigations are more helpful than other investigations. Intravenous pyelography is useful not only as a test of renal function, but also because it may reveal obstruction of one or both ureters. It should be remembered that ureteric obstruction is more likely to be due to retroperitoneal inflammatory reaction than to external pressure due to the aneurysmal sac. After induction of anaesthesia, a self-retaining urethral catheter is passed to monitor urine flow during surgery and in the first few postoperative days. The small intestine is delivered out and enclosed in a sterile plastic bag or moist towels. The small intestine is packed away on the right side of the abdomen, the descending and pelvic colon on the left side and the transverse colon upwards. Now the abdominal aneurysm is assessed properly particularly noting the level of its neck and the state of its bifurcation. The posterior parietal peritoneum is incised from the ligament of Treitz to the pelvis below, taking care not to damage the inferior mesenteric vein. If trial clamping leads to cyanosis of the left colon, a cuff of the aorta should be preserved around its origin for later reimplantation into the graft. For this, these arteries are mobilized and made free from the inferior vena cava and iliac veins. Bleeding from the orifices of the lumbar and median sacral arteries is controlled by suturing their orifices within the sac. If a ring of normal aortic tissue can be identified proximal to its bifurcation, a tube graft can be used. Knitted graft should be preclotted and its above the umbilicus shows a moderately large use is associated with blood loss through the abdominal aortic aneurysm with a large defect in left lateral wall consistent with rupture. That is why woven Dacron graft is area in the left paravertebral region represents the more preferred. The upper anastomosis is commenced in the midline posteriorly and picks up a fold of aortic wall at the neck of the sac. The suture line now proceeds laterally to its side and meets in the midline anteriorly. If a tube graft is used, it is of such a length that it will be under moderate tension when the distal suture is completed. The distal anastomosis is carried out in exactly the same manner as the proximal suture. When a bifurcation graft is used, the common iliac arteries are transected taking care not to damage their accompanying veins. Two points should be kept in mind at the time of distal anastomosis — (i) the intima of the common iliac artery should be carefully anchored by the suture so as to prevent formation of dissecting aneurysm and (ii) before completion of the distal anastomosis it is essential to release in turn the proximal and distal clamps to dislodge any thrombus which may be formed during operation. The aneurysmal sac is now approximated around the graft and the posterior parietal peritoneum is closed. Left colon should be inspected and as mentioned earlier reimplantation of the inferior mesenteric artery to the graft may be required. Haemorrhage is now not a very serious complication and occurs provided that anticoagulation is continued beyond the immediate postoperative period. Left colon ischaemia due to lack of collateral blood supply may occur in 10% of cases. Other early complications are haemorrhage, thrombosis of the graft, peripheral emboli, ileus, intestinal obstruction, ischaemia of the left colon and renal insufficiency. Late complications include graft thrombosis, false aneurysm, aortoduodenal fistula (it should be suspected whenever haematemesis or melaena occurs in months or years after operation. A successful outcome may be achieved by prompt operation in which aorta is separated from duodenum, the holes are closed and some omentum is interposed between two structures). Under radiological control a stent-graft delivery system is guided up into the aorta and is placed within the aortic sac. For the other iliac artery a separate single iliac-stent graft is introduced from the opposite common femoral artery. One must be careful to see that the upper most level of the graft and distally at both iliac levels the stent-graft should be bloodtight. Though this method is a success in the initial stage, but lately there is a possibility of stent- graft fragmentation and leakage at the interface of vessel and stent-graft. Two types of rupture may occur — In case of anterior rupture there is free bleeding into the peritoneal cavity. This condition is extremely fatal and only few patients can be brought to the hospital alive. Those who are brought alive, carries a high risk of surgery due to prolonged period of hypotension and shock. But frequent erroneous diagnosis as renal colic or massive myocardial infarct or pulmonary infarct may be made. If operation is performed as an emergency procedure 50% survival should be expected. It is important to know that elevation of blood pressure should be avoided until the abdomen has been opened and proximal control of the aorta is obtained. This must be achieved very quickly by cross-clamping the aorta below the renal arteries. If necessary the aorta may be compressed through the lesser omentum till infrarenal control can be obtained. The ruptured aneurysm is widely incised, intra-abdominal clots are evacuated and the renal arteries isolated. Recently there has been renewed interest in autotransfusion using blood sucked out from the peritoneal cavity. Low molecular weight dextran should not be used as when excreted by the kidneys it may block the renal tubules. Intravenous mannitol (200 ml of 20% solution) or frusemide (Lasix) may be of value particularly in the early post-operative phase, as renal failure is more common after this type of operation. If abdominal aorta is carefully examined, l/3rd of these cases may be seen to accompany aortic aneurysm. It usually occurs in men in 6th and 7th decades of life, half of whom are hypertensive.
Apply traction sutures to the incised ileum generic 150 mg cleocin overnight delivery, Loop Ileostomy one to each quadrant (Fig cheap cleocin 150 mg on-line. Construct a one-layer anastomosis between the ileum and the dentate line of the If there is the slightest concern about the integrity of the pel- anus trusted 150mg cleocin. Be sure to include in each stitch a 4 mm bite of under- vic anastomoses, protect the pouch with a temporary divert- lying internal sphincter muscle as well as anal epithelium. If the in the abdominal wall that remains after dismantling a previ- anal canal is deep, a double-curved Stratte needle holder is ous ileostomy, it is generally possible to use the same site for 578 C. Insert a large Babcock clamp through the opening in the abdominal wall and grasp the antimesenteric aspect of a segment of ileum proximal to the ileal reservoir. Select a segment of ileum that does not exert any tension whatever on the ileal reservoir. Drainage and Closure Hematoma or infection in the space between the rectal cuff and the ileal reservoir may produce ﬁbrosis and impair fecal continence. Consequently, at this point in the operation, make every effort to achieve complete hemostasis in the rec- tal cuff and in the pelvis. Insert one or two Jackson-Pratt sili- cone closed-suction drains through puncture wounds in the abdominal wall down to the rectal cuff. Some believe it is important to place a layer of sutures between the proximal cut end of the rectal cuff and the ileal reservoir. Although we do not believe that these sutures can compensate for an inad- equate ileoanal anastomosis, they may help prevent tension on the pouch. Chassin bowel movements takes time and sometimes requires dietary adjustment and medication to achieve optimum continence. This com- plication has been reported during the early postoperative period and, remarkably, 2 and 6 months after operation in other cases. If the loop ileostomy is still in place, most cuff abscesses can be treated by drainage directly through the anastomosis. Pelvic abscesses may require laparot- omy or computed tomography-guided percutaneous cath- eter insertion for drainage. Pouch surveillance must be performed in patients with famil- ial polyposis syndromes. Inﬂuence of a defunction- ing stoma on leakage rates after low colorectal anastomosis and colonic J pouch-anal anastomosis. Remove the closed- come and quality of life after stapled restorative proctocolectomy. Results at up to 20 years after ileal pouch-anal anasto- kanamycin in 25 ml saline into the drainage catheters every mosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. J-ileal Until the loop ileostomy is closed, perform weekly or pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis: complications biweekly digital examinations of the ileoanal anastomosis to and long-term outcome in 1310 patients. Restorative proctocolectomy with J-pouch ileo- prevent the development of a stricture. If there has been uneventful heal- ation: long-term outcome with or without diverting ileostomy. If trial comparing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis performed by excising both these procedures are negative, close the loop ileostomy. Chassin† Indications hypogastric arteries, where they join the inferior hypogastric plexus on each side. The parasympathetic sacral autonomic I n ﬂ ammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and outﬂow may be interrupted if the lateral ligaments are divided Crohn’s colitis with intractable rectal involvement that too far lateral to the rectum or if the nerve plexus between the precludes restorative proctocolectomy rectum and prostate is damaged. Proper strategy requires that the mesentery in the region of the rectosigmoid be divided Preoperative Preparation along a line just adjacent to the colon, leaving considerable fat and mesentery in the presacral space to protect the hypo- See Chap. The remainder of the pelvic dissection should be carried out as close to the rectum as possible, especially in the region of the lateral ligaments and prostate. Pitfalls and Danger Points So long as there are no multiple perineal ﬁstulas, it is gen- erally possible to achieve primary healing of the perineum if Operative damage to or interruption of pelvic autonomic dead space between the closed levators and the peritoneal nerves in male patients, leading to sexual impotence or pelvic ﬂoor is eliminated. Because there is no need for radi- failure of ejaculation cal excision of the pelvic peritoneum, preserve as much of it Pelvis sepsis, especially in patients who have perineal ﬁstulas as possible and mobilize additional pelvic peritoneum from Inadequate management of perineal wound, resulting in a the lateral walls of the pelvis and the bladder. If there is suf- chronic perineal draining sinus ﬁcient peritoneum to permit the pelvic peritoneal suture line to come down easily into contact with the reconstructed levator diaphragm, close this layer. Otherwise it is much bet- Operative Strategy ter to leave the pelvic peritoneum entirely unsutured to per- mit the small bowel to ﬁll this space. Transection of the hypogastric sympathetic nerve trunks Lyttle and Parks (1977) advocated preservation of the that cross over the anterior aorta causes ejaculatory failure in external sphincter muscles. Beyond the aortic bifurcation, these nerves diverge into tion with an incision near the dentate line of the anal canal two bundles going toward the region of the right and left and continue the dissection in the intersphincteric space between the internal and external sphincters of the anal C. Thus the rectum is cored out of the anal canal, leaving Department of Surgery, Roy J. Chassin Operative Technique the hypogastric nerve bundles, which travel from the preaor- tic area down the promontory of the sacrum toward the hypo- Abdominal Incision and Position gastric vessels on each side to join the hypogastric plexuses on each side (see Figs. With the patient positioned on Lloyd-Davies leg rests, thighs abducted and slightly ﬂexed, make a midline incision from the mid-epigastrium to the pubis (see Fig. If the Rectal Dissection patient has previously undergone subtotal colectomy with ileostomy and mucous ﬁstula, free the mucous ﬁstula from Incise the pelvic peritoneum along the line where the perito- its attachments to the abdominal wall. Ligate the lumen with neum joins the rectum, preserving as much peritoneum as umbilical tape and cover it with a sterile rubber glove. Divide the posterior mesentery to the mid-sacral Divide the mesentery between sequentially applied Kelly level. The posterior wall of rectum can now be seen, as at this clamps along a line close to the posterior wall of the recto- point the blood supply of the rectum comes from the lateral sigmoid. This leaves a considerable amount of fat and by blunt dissection and with Metzenbaum scissors incise mesentery behind to cover the bifurcation of the aorta and Waldeyer’s fascia close to the rectum. The fat and mesentery prevent injury to cephalad direction and place the peritoneum of the rectovesi- cal or rectouterine pouch on stretch. Division of the lateral ligament can also be accomplished with good hemostasis by inserting a right-angle clamp underneath the ligament and dividing the overlying tissue with electrocau- tery (see Fig. With cephalad traction on the rectum and a Lloyd-Davies retractor holding the bladder forward, divide Denonvilliers’ fascia at the level of the proximal portion of the prostate (see Fig. Keep the dissection close to the anterior rectal wall, which should be bluntly separated from the body of the prostate. When the dissection has continued beyond the tip of the coccyx posteriorly and the prostate anteriorly, initiate the perineal dissection. Perineal Incision Close the skin of the anal canal with a heavy purse-string suture (Fig. Then make an incision circumferentially in the skin just outside the sphincter muscles of the anus. Carry the dissection down close to the outer margins of the external sphincter to the levator muscles (Fig. The inferior hemorrhoidal vessels are encountered running toward the rectum overlying the levator muscles. After the incision has been deepened to the levators on both sides, expose the tip of the coccyx.
If there is upper abdominal pain order 150 mg cleocin visa, esophagoscopy generic 150mg cleocin free shipping, gastroscopy discount 150 mg cleocin with mastercard, and duodenoscopy would be performed. Gallium scans may detect a diverticular abscess or other localized area of chronic inflammation. A history of trauma brings to mind the possibility of a ruptured spleen or other abdominal organ rupture or laceration. This finding should make one think of a ruptured peptic ulcer or diverticulum or a perforated gallbladder, although appendicitis may occasionally be preceded by bouts of abdominal pain. If surgery is to be delayed or when the exact cause of the rigidity is in doubt, consider ordering a chest x-ray to rule out pneumonia and a peritoneal tap to exclude ruptured ectopic pregnancy, generalized peritonitis, and laparoscopy. Exploratory laparotomy must be considered in any case of unexplained tenderness and rigidity when the diagnosis is in doubt. However, the liver may be pushed down by a subphrenic abscess, and there may be an enlarged gallbladder due to cholecystitis or bile duct obstruction. There may be perinephric abscesses, tumors of the colon, renal tumors, adrenal tumors, hydrops of the gallbladder, fecal impaction, or an abdominal wall hematoma. A mass in the epigastrium also may be an enlarged liver, but other types of masses must be considered, including an omental hernia, pancreatic tumor, pancreatic cyst, gastric carcinoma, pyloric stenosis, aortic aneurysm, and retroperitoneal sarcoma. Left upper quadrant masses are often a splenomegaly, but abdominal wall hematomas occur in this area, as well as pancreatic tumors, pancreatic cysts, gastric tumors, colon tumors, kidney tumors or enlargement, and fecal impaction. A mass in the right lower quadrant is frequently a carcinoma of the colon, appendiceal abscess, psoas abscess, pyosalpinx, regional ileitis, intussusception, or an ovarian tumor. A mass in the hypogastrium may be bladder, pregnant uterus, uterine fibroids, regional ileitis, urachal cyst, omental cyst, and, rarely, endometrial carcinoma. The presence of a tender mass in the right upper quadrant often means congestive heart failure, a tender liver from hepatitis, or a tender gallbladder from cholecystitis, subphrenic abscess, perinephric abscess, or an abdominal wall hematoma. A tender mass in the left upper quadrant may be an abdominal wall hematoma or a perinephric abscess. A tender mass in the right lower quadrant may be appendiceal abscess, psoas abscess, pyosalpinx, regional ileitis, or intussusception. The presence of blood in the urine, of course, would suggest a tumor of the kidney such as hypernephroma or Wilms’ tumor. The presence of fever would suggest that the mass is an abscess such as subphrenic abscess, perinephric abscess, diverticular abscess, appendiceal abscess, or pyosalpinx. At this point, before ordering more expensive tests, a surgeon or gastroenterologist should be consulted. An abdominal ultrasound will be helpful in differentiating cholecystitis and other cystic masses of the pancreas, kidneys, and reproductive organs. Endoscopic procedures will help diagnose carcinoma of the stomach and colon and diverticulitis. Gallium scans will help uncover subdiaphragmatic, perinephric, diverticular, and pelvic abscesses. Peritoneal taps will help differentiate ascites, pancreatitis, and peritoneal bleeding. Needle biopsy of the liver or any mass lesion under laparoscopic guidance may be diagnostic. Ultimately, exploratory laparotomy is still an excellent way of establishing a diagnosis. If there is hepatomegaly, one should suspect congestive heart failure, emphysema, constrictive pericarditis, hepatic vein thrombosis, and cirrhosis of the liver. If there is dyspnea or cardiomegaly, one should suspect congestive heart failure or emphysema. The presence of hypertension or proteinuria should arouse suspicion of nephritis or nephrosis. These findings are suggestive of tuberculous peritonitis, ruptured viscus, pancreatic cyst, advanced intestinal obstruction, mesenteric thrombosis or embolism, acute pancreatitis, and ruptured ectopic pregnancy. If peritoneal fluid is established, a peritoneal tap is done and the fluid analyzed and cultured. The fluid may be spun down and a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear made or cell block study done. Contrast radiographic studies may identify a primary neoplasm or primary source for infection. A general surgeon or gastroenterologist should be consulted early in the diagnostic evaluation. On physical examination, his blood pressure is 110/80, but he demonstrates weak dorsalis pedis, tibialis, popliteal, and femoral pulses in both lower extremities. Following the algorithm, you suspect a Leriche’s syndrome and you would be correct. Diminished pulse in the upper extremities should suggest dissecting aneurysm, embolism, fracture, arteriovenous fistula, coarctation of the aorta, aortic aneurysm, thoracic outlet syndrome, and subclavian steal syndrome. Diminished pulse in the lower extremities should suggest embolism, fracture, arteriovenous fistula, peripheral arteriosclerosis, Leriche’s syndrome, and coarctation of the aorta, as well as dissecting aneurysm. Diminished pulses in all four extremities would suggest shock or constrictive pericarditis. The presence of unilateral absent or diminished pulse should suggest dissecting aneurysm, embolism, fracture, arteriovenous fistula, some cases of coarctation of the aorta, aortic aneurysm, thoracic outlet syndrome, and subclavian steal if it is in the upper extremity. In the lower extremities, unilateral decrease in the pulse may be caused by arteriosclerosis or arterial embolism. Bilateral diminished pulses would suggest Leriche’s syndrome, saddle embolism, dissecting aneurysm, and coarctation of the aorta if it is in the lower extremity; and if it is in the upper extremity, it may also be related to a dissecting aneurysm and rarely arteriosclerosis. The presence of a sudden onset in diminished pulse should suggest an embolism or dissecting aneurysm regardless of where the diminished or absent pulse may be. However, if it is just the lower extremities, it could be Leriche’s syndrome as well. If there is a history of trauma, x-rays of the involved extremity or extremities should be done. If it is acute onset with fever, a blood culture should be done to rule out bacterial endocarditis. Because an acute onset suggests an embolism, a search for the embolic source should be undertaken. A cardiologist should be consulted for further guidance in determining whether there is an embolic source. If there are transient ischemic attacks, ultrasonography or four-vessel angiography should be done to determine whether there is a subclavian steal. Doppler studies are of assistance in diagnosing the peripheral arteriosclerosis regardless of where it is, but angiography will ultimately need to be done to determine the exact location of the blockage and whether surgery could be effective in alleviating the condition. This picture may occur in liver disease, early Gaucher’s disease, and multiple myeloma. An increased bicarbonate level points to respiratory acidosis, whereas a decreased bicarbonate level points to renal disease, diarrhea, and the use of certain diuretics.
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