By M. Kan. Allen College. 2019.
The advantage of such sprays is that they can be kept longer proven paxil 10mg; but they are more expensive than tablets buy paxil no prescription. There is no evidence of a difference in efficacy and safety between the three active substances in this group 30mg paxil mastercard. With regard to suitability, the three substances hardly differ in contraindications and possible interactions. Cost may be expressed as cost per unit, cost per day, or cost per total treatment. Since tablets are cheapest in most countries, these might well be your first choice. In this case the active substance for your P-drug of choice for an attack of angina pectoris would be: sublingual tablets of glyceryl trinitrate 1 mg. Choose a standard dosage schedule As the drug is to be taken during an acute attack, there is no strict dosage schedule. If it continues even after a second tablet, the patient should be told to contact a doctor immediately. Choose a standard duration of the treatment There is no way to predict how long the patient will suffer from the attacks, so the duration of the treatment should be determined by the need for follow-up. In general only a small supply of glyceryl trinitrate tablets should be prescribed as the active substance is rather volatile and the tablet may become ineffective after some time. If you agree with this choice, glyceryl trinitrate sublingual tablets would be the first P-drug of your personal formulary. Define the diagnosis Stable angina pectoris, caused by a partial occlusion of coronary artery 27 Guide to Good Prescribing ii. Specify therapeutic objective Reduce myocardial oxygen need by decreasingStop an attack as soon as possible preload, contractility, heart rate or afterload iii. Make inventory of effective groups Nitrates ß-blockers Calcium channel blockers iv. Choose a group according to criteria efficacy safety suitability cost Nitrates (tablet) + ± ++ + Beta-blockers (injection) + ± - - Calcium channel blockers (injection) + ± - - v. Choose a P-drug efficacy safety suitability cost Glyceryl trinitrate (tablet) + ± + + (spray) + ± (+) - Isosorbide dinitrate (tablet) + ± + ± Isosorbide mononitrate (tablet) + ± + ± Conclusion Active substance, dosage form: glyceryl trinitrate, sublingual tablet 1 mg Dosage schedule: 1 tablet as needed; second tablet if pain persists Duration: length of monitoring interval 28 Chapter 4 Guidelines for selecting P-drugs C hapter 4 Guidelines for selecting P-drugs The previous chapter gave an Cartoon 2 example of choosing a P-drug for the treatment of acute angina pectoris, on the basis of efficacy, safety, suitability and cost. Step i: Define the diagnosis When selecting a P-drug, it is important to remember that you are choosing a drug of first choice for a common condition. You are not choosing a drug for an individual patient (when actually treating a patient you will verify whether your P-drug is suitable for that particular case - see Chapter 8). To be able to select the best drug for a given condition, you should study the pathophysiology of the disease. Sometimes the physiology of the disease is unknown, while treatment is possible and necessary. Treating symptoms without really treating the underlying disease is called symptomatic treatment. When treating an individual patient you should start by carefully defining the patient’s problem (see Chapter 6). When selecting a P-drug you only have to choose a common problem to start the process. Step ii: Specify the therapeutic objective It is very useful to define exactly what you want to achieve with a drug, for example, to decrease the diastolic blood pressure to a certain level, to cure an 29 Guide to Good Prescribing infectious disease, or to suppress feelings of anxiety. Always remember that the (patho)physiology determines the possible site of action of your drug and the maximum therapeutic effect that you can achieve. The better you define your therapeutic objective, the easier it is to select your P-drug. Step iii: Make an inventory of effective groups of drugs In this step you link the therapeutic objective to various drugs. Drugs that are not effective are not worth examining any further, so efficacy is the first criterion for selection. There are tens of thousands of different drugs, but only about 70 pharmacological groups! All drugs with the same working mechanism (dynamics) and a similar molecular structure belong to one group. As the active substances in a drug group have the same working mechanism, their effects, side effects, contraindications and interactions are also similar. Most active substances in a group share a common stem in their generic name, such as diazepam, lorazepam and temazepam for benzodiazepines, and propranolol and atenolol for beta-blockers. Another way is to check the index of a good pharmacology reference book and determine which groups are listed for your diagnosis or therapeutic objective. Step iv: Choose an effective group according to criteria To compare groups of effective drugs, you need information on efficacy, safety, suitability and cost (Tables 3 and 4). Such tables can also be used when you study other diagnoses, or when looking for alternative P-drugs. For example, beta-blockers are used in hypertension, angina pectoris, migraine, glaucoma and arrhythmia. Although there are many different settings in which drugs are selected, the criteria for selection are more or less universal. In order to be effective, the drug has to reach a minimum plasma concentration and the kinetic profile of the drug must allow for this with an easy dosage schedule. Kinetic data on the drug group as a whole may not be available as they are related to dosage form and product formulation, but in most cases general features can be listed. Only those drugs for which adequate scientific data are available from controlled clinical trials and/or epidemiological studies and for which evidence of performance in general use in a variety of settings has been obtained, should be selected. Newly released products should only be included if they have distinct advantages over products currently in use. Each drug must meet adequate standards of quality, including when necessary bioavailability, and stability under the anticipated conditions of storage and use. The cost of treatment, and especially the cost/benefit ratio of a drug or a dosage form, is a major selection criterion. Where two or more drugs appear to be similar, preference should be given to (1) drugs which have been most thoroughly investigated; (2) drugs with the most favourable pharmacokinetic properties; and (3) drugs for which reliable local manufacturing facilities exist. Fixed-ratio combination products are only acceptable when the dosage of each ingredient meets the requirements of a defined population group and when the combination has a proven advantage over single compounds administered separately in therapeutic effect, safety, compliance or cost. If possible, the incidence of frequent side effects and the safety margins should be listed. Almost all side effects are directly linked to the working mechanism of the drug, with the exception of allergic reactions. Suitability 31 Guide to Good Prescribing Although the final check will only be made with the individual patient, some general aspects of suitability can be considered when selecting your P-drugs. Contraindications are related to patient conditions, such as other illnesses which make it impossible to use a P-drug that is otherwise effective and safe.
Iturned outhaalmosall medically tread hypernsive patients (98%) had patient- perceived problems and each patienhad an average of five problems generic 30 mg paxil free shipping. The moscommon problem was the perceived lack of follow-up by the health centre (72%) purchase paxil mastercard. Two-thirds of patients had difficulties to accepbeing hypernsive patienand showed a careless attitude towards their hypernsion purchase online paxil. High levels of patient-perceived problems in the cagories of everyday life relad problems, health care sysm relad problems and patient-relad problems were associad with multiple risks of inntional non-compliance with antihypernsive medication. Furthermore, patient- perceived everyday life relad problems, a hopeless attitude towards hypernsion and frustration with treatmenwere associad with poor outcomes of antihypernsive drug therapy. A theoretical classificatory model of non-compliance and non-concordance, which divided this phenomenon firsas inntional and non-inntional, was also cread. The inntional forms are: �individualistic way of taking care of one�s health�, �inlligenchoice�, �ethical/moral or religious values� and �priorities of life�. The non-inntional forms are: �forgetfulness�, �lack of atntion�, �disease�, �misunderstandings or lack of information� and �problems in the supply or use of medicines�. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed thathe treatmenof hypernsive patients in Finland is far from optimal from the patients� perspective. When these findings are combined with the age structure of the Finnish population, hypernsion continues to be a public health problem. There is a risk of non-compliance with practically every medical and non-medical treatment, and profound understanding of the phenomenon is essential for achieving betr treatmenoutcomes in medical practice. Athe same time, iwas hard to consider whaimeans to be a representative of health care staff in our currensociety, where the value of human life aarly stages seems so unimportant. And the same problem, though probably less visibly so far, also concerns the lasparof human life. The future will show how much more these attitudes will affecthe hearts of health care professionals, our society and the value of human life in all age groups. I express my deep gratitude to both of my supervisors, professor Hannes Enlund and professor Esko Kumpusalo, for their advice, ideas and discussions during these years. Although you are very differenpersons and scientists, you have both provided me with the privilege to learn a loabouscience from very differenviewpoints. Hannes, I also wish to thank you for the possibility collecthe pharmacy-based study marial, the possibility for doctoral research and the special way you motivad me to develop an inresin studying this topic. Esko, I wish to thank you for the possibility to use the primary health care based study marial and your personal advice thawhen there are many things to do and only a little time, you musconcentra on whais mosssential. I express my gratitude to professor Ilkka Kantola and professor Timo Pitkajarvi for being the reviewers of this work. I really wanto thank biostatistician Pirjo Halonen for her exnsive statistical advice and especially for aching me the inraction analyses of logistic regression models. I thank professor emeritus Jorma Takala for the possibility to use the primary health care based study marial. I am thankful to professor Riitta Ahonen for excellenworking conditions and to professor Marja Airaksinen for inresconcerning my studies. I thank the departmensecretary Raija Holopainen for kind help during these years and research secretary Paula Rasanen for transferring the pharmacy-based study marial into a compurized form. Furthermore, I wanto thank all those persons in the Departmenof Social Pharmacy, Departmenof Public Health and General Practice, primary health centres and in pharmacies who have been contribud to this work. Also I wish to thank all of our mutual friends who have contribud to our discussions. During these years, his writings and information abourelad marials have been more than importanfor me in understanding the enormous problems of the (macro-) evolution hypothesis and the facthaour science accepts only naturalistic reasons as explanations. I thank the Nokia Revival Ministries, especially Riku Rinne, Markku Koivisto and Ari Paloheimo. Your Thursday evenings through the radio were very importanand refreshing, especially during my lasyears in Kuopio. I also thank my friend Joni Parkkonen for our inresting discussions and importaninformation sources you have presend, both of which have helped my spiritual growth. Furthermore, I also wish thank all those friends and acquaintances, regardless of your congregation, if any, with whom I have had good spiritual discussions, because such discussions are always importanand refreshing. I wanto express my deep gratitude to my parents Arja and Juhani for the value base thaI have received from you. I also thank for your endless support, time and love even when your strength has been almosdepled. Thank you also for our am-work in the spiritual area thahas been clearly synergistic. I also thank Elli Turunen Fund of Finnish Cultural Foundation from financial support. Finally, I owe my deepesgratitude from everything to the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. Several theoretical models have been proposed to explain non-complianbehaviour, buwith qui poor success. One reason may be thathese theories have been applied to all non-complianpatients withoudifferentiating between inntional and non-inntional behaviour (Barber 2002). Despi active research, our knowledge of the phenomenon of non-compliance continues to be insufficient. There is an obvious need to reach more profound understanding of compliance and non-compliance. In this study, compliance will be approached from the perspective of hypernsion, which is the moscommon chronic disease among the Finnish population. Half a million Finns have been regisred as entitled to special reimbursemenfrom Social Insurance Institution for their antihypernsive medication (Klaukka 2005). In addition, there is a large number of persons who also use antihypernsive medication, buhave noyereceived this certification. Another large group is those patients who know thatheir blood pressure is raised, buwho have no medication aall. Recenfindings from the Framingham study showed thahalf of normonsive 55- year-olds and over two-thirds of normonsive 65-year-olds will develop hypernsion within the nexn years (Vasan eal. In the nexfew years, a very large number of Finns will reach the high-risk age (Suomen laaketilasto 2002). This will pose a challenge to the Finnish health care sysm, because hypernsion is an expensive disease due to its cardiovascular complications and medical treatments. In addition, the human suffering caused by hypernsion to the patients and their close relatives is immeasurable. Ihas been recently shown thaonly every fourth Finnish hypernsive patienin primary care has reached the goal of blood pressures values under 140/85 mmHg (Meriranta eal. These poor outcomes of hypernsion treatmenare alarming, buthey do nogive us any idea abouthe patients� perspectives of hypernsion treatment. Traditionally, medical treatmenhas held the key role in hypernsion 14 treatmenregardless of patients� concerns and wishes. As long as the focus of treatmenis something other than the patient, the patienperspective nds to gelost. The treatmenof hypernsion with adverse drug effects and symptoms may be very troublesome for the patient.
Mefoquine is considered safe for the treatment of malaria during the second and third trimesters order paxil online pills; however order paxil 10mg mastercard, it should be given only in combination with an artemisinin derivative discount paxil 10mg without a prescription. Quinine is associated with an increased risk for hypoglycaemia in late pregnancy, and it should be used (with clindamycin) only if effective alternatives are not available. Those available indicate that pharmacokinetic properties are often altered during pregnancy but that the alterations are insuffcient to warrant dose modifcations at this time. With quinine, no signifcant differences in exposure have been seen during pregnancy. Studies are available of the pharmacokinetics of artemether + lumefantrine, artesunate + mefoquine and dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine. Most data exist for artemether + lumefantrine; these suggest decreased overall exposure during the second and third trimesters. Simulations suggest that a standard six-dose regimen of lumefantrine given over 5 days, rather than 3 days, improves exposure, but the data are insuffcient to recommend this alternative regimen at present. Limited data on pregnant women treated with dihydroartemesinin + piperaquine suggest lower dihydroartemisinin exposure and no overall difference in total piperaquine exposure, but a shortened piperaquine elimination half-life was noted. The data on artesunate + mefoquine are insuffcient to recommend an adjustment of dosage. No data are available on the pharmacokinetics of artesunate + amodiaquine in pregnant women with falciparum malaria, although drug exposure was similar in pregnant and non-pregnant women with vivax malaria. Tetracycline is contraindicated in breastfeeding mothers because of its potential effect on infants’ bones and teeth. Primaquine should be avoided in the frst 6 months of life (although there are no data on its toxicity in infants), and tetracyclines should be avoided throughout infancy. With these exceptions, none of the other currently recommended antimalarial treatments has shown serious toxicity in infancy. The uncertainties noted above should not delay treatment with the most effective drugs available. In treating young children, it is important to ensure accurate dosing and retention of the administered dose, as infants are more likely to vomit or regurgitate antimalarial treatment than older children or adults. Taste, volume, consistency and gastrointestinal tolerability are important determinants of whether the child retains the treatment. Mothers often need advice on techniques of drug administration and the importance of administering the drug again if it is regurgitated within 1 h of administration. Because deterioration in infants can be rapid, the threshold for use of parenteral treatment should be much lower. This approach does not take into account changes in drug disposition that occur 52 5 | Treatment of uncomplicated P. Adjustments to previous dosing regimens for dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine in uncomplicated malaria and for artesunate in severe malaria are now recommended to ensure adequate the drug exposure in this vulnerable population. Limited studies of amodiaquine and mefoquine showed no signifcant effect of age on plasma concentration profles. In community situations where parenteral treatment is needed but cannot be given, such as for infants and young children who vomit antimalarial drugs repeatedly or are too weak to swallow or are very ill, give rectal artesunate and transfer the patient to a facility in which parenteral treatment is possible. Rectal administration of a single dose of artesunate as pre-referral treatment reduces the risks for death and neurological disability, as long as this initial treatment is followed by appropriate parenteral antimalarial treatment in hospital. Further evidence on pre-referral rectal administration of artesunate and other antimalarial drugs is given in section 7. In most clinical studies, subgroups of infants and older children were not distinguished, and the evidence for young infants (< 5 kg) is insuffcient for confdence in current treatment recommendations. Nevertheless despites these uncertainties, infants need prompt, effective treatment of malaria. There is limited evidence that artemether + lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin + piperaquine achieve lower plasma concentrations in infants than in older children and adults. Other considerations The Guideline Development Group considered the currently available evidence too limited to warrant formal evidence review at this stage, and was unable to recommend any changes beyond the status quo. The only antimalarial agent that is currently contraindicated for infants (<6 months) is primaquine. The lack of infant formulations of most antimalarial drugs often necessitates division of adult tablets, which can lead to inaccurate dosing. Malnutrition may result in inaccurate dosing when doses are based on age (a dose may be too high for an infant with a low weight for age) or on weight (a dose may be too low for an infant with a low weight for age). Although many studies of the effcacy of antimalarial drugs have been conducted in populations and settings where malnutrition was prevalent, there are few studies of the disposition of the drugs specifcally in malnourished individuals, and these seldom distinguished between acute and chronic malnutrition. Oral absorption of drugs may be reduced if there is diarrhoea or vomiting, or rapid gut transit or atrophy of the small bowel mucosa. Absorption of intramuscular and possibly intrarectal drugs may be slower, and diminished muscle mass may make it diffcult to administer repeated intramuscular injections to malnourished patients. The volume of distribution of some drugs may be larger and the plasma concentrations lower. Hypoalbuminaemia may reduce protein binding and increase metabolic clearance, but concomitant hepatic dysfunction may reduce the metabolism of some drugs; the net result is uncertain. Small studies of the pharmacokinetics of quinine and chloroquine showed alterations in people with different degrees of malnutrition. A pooled analysis of data for individual patients showed that the concentrations of lumefantrine on day 7 were lower in children < 3 years who were underweight for age than in adequately nourished children and adults. Although these fndings are concerning, they are insuffcient to warrant dose modifcations (in mg/kg bw) of any antimalarial drug in patients with malnutrition, however, their response to treatment should be monitored more closely. In principle, dosing of large adults should be based on achieving the target mg/kg bw dose for each antimalarial regimen. The practical consequence is that two packs of an antimalarial drug might have to be opened to ensure adequate treatment. For obese patients, less drug is often distributed to fat than to other tissues; therefore, they should be dosed on the basis of an estimate of lean body weight, ideal body weight. Patients who are heavy but not obese require the same mg/kg bw doses as lighter patients. In the past, maximum doses have been recommended, but there is no evidence or justifcation for this practice. As the evidence for an association between dose, pharmacokinetics and treatment outcome in overweight or large adults is limited, and alternative dosing options have not been assessed in treatment trials, it is recommended that this gap in knowledge be assessed urgently. In the absence of data, treatment providers should attempt to follow up the treatment outcomes of large adults whenever possible. Data on the safety of nevirapine-based regimens in people receiving amodiaquine + artesunate are lacking, but lower levels of amodiaquine and its metabolite desethylamodiaquine have been reported when they were given together with nevirapine. More data are available on use of artemether + lumefantrine with antiretroviral treatment. A study in children with uncomplicated malaria in a high-transmission area of Africa showed a decreased risk for recurrent malaria after treatment with artemether + lumefantrine in children receiving lopinavir–ritonavir-based antiretroviral treatment as compared with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral treatment. Evaluation of pharmacokinetics in these children and in healthy volunteers showed signifcantly higher exposure to lumefantrine and lower exposure to dihydroartemisinin with lopinavir–ritonavir-based antiretroviral treatment, but no adverse consequences. Conversely, efavirenz-based antiretroviral treatment was associated with a two- to fourfold decrease in exposure to lumefantrine in healthy volunteers and malaria-infected adults and children, with increased rates of recurrent malaria after treatment.
Validation of patienreports cheap paxil 20mg free shipping, automad pharmacy records buy online paxil, and pill counts with electronic monitoring of adherence to antihypernsive therapy cheap paxil online american express. A cohorstudy of possible risk factors for over-reporting of antihypernsive adherence. Blood pressure, antihypernsive drug treatmenand the risks of stroke and of coronary heardisease. Degli Esposti L, Degli Esposti E, Valpiani G, Di Martino M, Saragoni S, Buda S, Baio G, Capone A, Sturani A. A retrospective, population-based analysis of persisnce with antihypernsive drug therapy in primary care practice in Italy. Approaches to the enhancemenof patienadherence to antidepressanmedication treatment. Consultation length in general practice: cross sectional study in six European countries. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patienadherence. 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Excess morbidity and cosof failure to achieve targets for blood pressure control in Europe. Correlas of health care satisfaction in inner-city patients with hypernsion and chronic renal insufficiency. Sysmatic review of randomised trials of inrventions to assispatients to follow prescriptions for medications. Inntional nonadherence due to adverse symptoms associad with antiretroviral therapy. The relation of culturally influenced lay models of hypernsion to compliance with treatment. Relationship between daily dose frequency and adherence to antihypernsive pharmacotherapy: evidence from a meta- analysis. Developing and using quantitative instruments for measuring doctor-patiencommunication aboudrugs. Discontinuation of and changes in treatmenafr starof new courses of antihypernsive drugs: a study of a Unid Kingdom population. Trends in blood pressure levels and control of hypernsion in Finland from 1982 to 1997. Levels of compliance shown by hypernsive patients and their attitude toward their illness. Postfertilization effects of oral contraceptives and their relationship to informed consent. Relation of hostility to medication adherence, symptom complaints, and blood pressure reduction in a clinical field trial of antihypernsive medication. Is patients� perception of time spenwith the physician a derminanof ambulatory patiensatisfaction? Medicad hypernsive patients� views and experience of information and communication concerning antihypernsive drugs. Mallion J-M, Dutrey-Dupagne C, Vaur L, Genes N, RenaulM, Elkik F, BagueP, BoulanS. Benefits of electronic pillboxes in evaluating treatmencompliance of patients with mild to modera hypernsion. Effecof reduced dietary sodium on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Relationship of blood pressure to 25-year mortality due to coronary heardisease, cardiovascular diseases, and all causes in young adulmen. Compliance with antihypernsive therapy among elderly Medicaid enrollees: the roles of age, gender, and race. Evaluation of family health education to build social supporfor long-rm control of high blood pressure. Concurrenand predictive validity of a self-repord measure of medication adherence. Adverse drug reactions in currenantihypernsive therapy: a general practice survey of 2586 patients in Norway. Placebo-associad blood pressure response and adverse effects in the treatmenof hypernsion. Variations in compliance among hypernsive patients by drug class: implications for health care costs. Impacof the cosof prescription drugs on clinical outcomes in indigenpatients with heardisease. How can we improve adherence to blood pressure-lowering medication in ambulatory care? Factors associad with noncompliance of patients taking antihypernsive medications. Unpredictability of deception in compliance with physician-prescribed bronchodilator inhaler use in a clinical trial. Compliance in an anti-hypernsion trial: a lanprocess model for binary longitudinal data. Mechanisms of action of intraurine devices: Upda and estimation of postfertilization effects. Improving compliance with therapeutic regimens in hypernsive patients in a community health cenr. Effects of weighloss and sodium reduction inrvention on blood pressure and hypernsion incidence in overweighpeople with high- normal blood pressure. Cost-lowering stragies used by medicare beneficiaries who exceed drug beneficaps and have a gap in drug coverage.
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