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Respiratory support may be may be of value to draw round the area of erythema to necessary 162.5mg avalide free shipping. Deeper r Acute renal failure may result from inadequate infections and collections may present as pyrexia with perfusion buy cheap avalide 162.5mg online, drugs buy generic avalide online, or pre-existing renal or liver disease. Specific presentations depend on the Once hypovolaemia has been corrected any remaining site, e. Treatmentinvolvesdebridement,treat- is preceded by a high volume serous discharge from the ment of any infection, application of zinc paste and in wound site and necessitates surgical repair. Late postoperative complications, which may occur Investigations weeksoryearsaftersurgery,includeadhesions,strictures Pyrexial patients require investigations. Injury or abnormal func- or isotope bone scanning to identify the source of infec- tion within the nervous system causes neuropathic pain. Itmaybe triggered by non-painful stimuli such as light touch, so- Management calledallodynia. Examplesofcausesincludepostherpetic r Prophylaxisagainstinfectionincludesmeticuloussur- neuralgia, peripheral neuropathy, e. Neuropathic pain is often diffi- Severely contaminated wounds may be closed by de- culttotreat,partlybecauseofitschronicbutepisodicna- layed primary suture. The principal reason for treating pain is to relieve suf- r Superficial surgical site infections may respond to an- fering. It improves patients’ ability to sleep and their tibiotics (penicillin and flucloxacillin, depending on overall emotional health. Deeper surgical site infections may re- can also have other benefits: postoperatively it can im- quire the removal of one or more skin sutures to al- prove respiratory function, increase the ability to cough low drainage of infected material. Abscesses generally and clear secretions, improve mobility and hence reduce require drainage either by surgery or radiologically the risk of complications such as pneumonia and deep guided aspiration alongside the use of appropriate an- vein thromboses. Assessing pain Pain control To diagnose and then treat pain first requires asking the Many medical and surgical patients experience pain. Often, if pain is treated aggres- Surgery causes tissue damage leading to the release of sively and early, it is easier to control than when the pa- localchemicalmediatorsthatstimulatepainfibres. Ischaemia, be asked to score their pain on a scale from none to very obstruction, infections, inflammation and joint disease severe (sometimes a 10-point scale is useful, where 0 also cause pain. In Pain may be induced by movement, which is sometimes some cases where verbal communication is not possible unavoidable, e. In contrast, immobility can cause pain due to resenting degrees of pain is useful. In addition, a patient’s what precipitates pain, such as movement or breathing, perception of pain is altered by many factors, including and whether the pain prevents or interrupts sleep. It is the patient’s overall physical and emotional well-being, important to establish whether the pain is nociceptive, cultural background, age, sex and ability to sleep ade- neuropathic or both. Depressionandfearoftenworsentheperception and these may require separate treatment plans. In a patient who is already taking analgesia, it is use- ful to assess their current use, the effect on pain and any Types of pain side-effects. Thepatientshouldalsobeaskedabouthisor Tissue damage causes a nociceptive pain, which can be her beliefs about drugs they have been given before. The further divided into a sharp, stabbing pain, which is patients should be involved as far as possible in the man- conveyed by the finely myelinated Aδ fibres, and a dull, agement of their pain. Adverse effects such as nausea 18 Chapter 1: Principles and practice of medicine and surgery and constipation are predictable, patients should be of their analgesia. A loading dose is given first, then the alerted to these and provided with means by which these patient presses a button to deliver subsequent small bo- can be treated early. This prevents respiratory depression due to acci- method for choosing appropriate analgesia depending dental overdose by the patient repeatedly pressing the on the severity of pain. If the patient becomes overly sedated, the de- cancer patients but is useful for many types of pain. If patients are not adequately tially, analgesia may be given on an as needed basis, but analgesed, the bolus dose is increased. This system is if frequent doses are required, regular doses should be not suitable for patients who are too unwell or confused given, so that each dose is given before the effect of the to understand the system and be able to press the button. Acombinationofdifferentdrugs often improves the pain relief with fewer adverse effects. Local and regional anaesthetic After analgesia is initiated, if it is ineffective at maximal Local anaesthetic is useful perioperatively. Certain drugs givenaround the wound or as a regional nerve block are contraindicated or used with caution in patients with to provide several hours of pain relief. Postoperative patients may descend the sia is useful for surgery of the lower half of the body. However, complications codeine, dihydrocodeine or tramadol orally or intra- include hypotension due to sympathetic block, urinary muscularly are added to regular paracetamol or an retention and motor weakness. Co-analgesics Modes of delivery of opioids These are other drugs that are not primarily analgesics, The oral route is preferred for most patients, but for but can help to relieve pain. In particular, neuropathic patients unable to take oral medication or for rapid re- pain is relatively insensitive to opioids; drugs such as an- lief of acute pain, intramuscular or intravenous boluses tidepressants and anticonvulsants are more effective, e. Tramadol is a weak opioid boluses for continued pain is that often there is a delay that has some action at adrenergic and serotonin recep- between the patient experiencing pain and analgesia be- tors and so may be useful for combination nociceptive ing given. Muscle spasm often responds to continuous infusion by a syringe driver may be appro- benzodiazepines. In Non-pharmacological treatment stable patients with severe ongoing pain, a transdermal In addition to prescribing analgesia, it is important to patch may be suitable. These release opioid in a con- consider other methods that relieve pain, such as treat- trolled manner, usually over 72 hours. Acupuncture, local heat or ice, Chapter 1: Infections 19 massage and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation a major cause of concern. Nasal colonisation and skin clearance is achieved by topical cream and antiseptic washes. Approximately 10% of patients admitted to a hospital Prevention of nosocomial infections in the United Kingdom acquire a nosocomial infection. The principles are to avoid transmission by always wash- Infections may be spread by droplet inhalation or direct ing hands after examining a patient, strict aseptic care hand contact from hospital staff or equipment. The pa- of central lines and isolation of cases in a side-room or tients most at risk are those at extremes of age, those even by ward. Certain patients are given prophylactic an- with significant co-morbidity, the immunosuppressed tibiotics, e. Risk factors also depend urinary catheters or central lines should be avoided or on the site, for example pneumonia is more common in the duration of use minimised. Early mobilisation and patients who are ventilated, who are bedbound or who discharge also help to reduce the period of risk. Instrumenta- tients are identified as having diarrhoea or being infected tion such as urinary catherisation or central lines can with resistant organisms they should be barrier nursed introduce infections.

The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and trusted 162.5 mg avalide, upon its own initiative purchase genuine avalide line, to identify issues of medical care order generic avalide line, research, and education. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. His expertise in protein and amino acid metabolism was a special asset to the panel’s work, as well as a contribution to the understanding of protein and amino acid requirements. Close attention was given throughout the report to the evidence relating macronutrient intakes to risk reduction of chronic disease and to amounts needed to maintain health. Thus, the report includes guidelines for partitioning energy sources (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges) compatible with decreasing risks of various chronic diseases. Thus, although governed by scientific rationales, informed judgments were often required in setting reference values. The quality and quantity of information on overt deficiency diseases for protein, amino acids, and essential fatty acids available to the com- mittee were substantial. Unfortunately, information regarding other nutri- ents for which their primary dietary importance relates to their roles as energy sources was limited most often to alterations in chronic disease biomarkers that follow dietary manipulations of energy sources. Also, for most of the nutrients in this report (with a notable exception of protein and some amino acids), there is no direct information that permits estimating the amounts required by children, adolescents, the elderly, or pregnant and lactating women. Dose–response studies were either not available or were suggestive of very low intake levels that could result in inadequate intakes of other nutrients. These information gaps and inconsistencies often precluded setting reli- able estimates of upper intake levels that can be ingested safely. The report’s attention to energy would be incomplete without its substantial review of the role of daily physical activity in achieving and sustaining fitness and optimal health (Chapter 12). The report provides recommended levels of energy expenditure that are considered most com- patible with minimizing risks of several chronic diseases and provides guid- ance for achieving recommended levels of energy expenditure. Inclusion of these recommendations avoids the tacit false assumption that light sedentary activity is the expected norm in the United States and Canada. With more experience, the proposed models for establishing reference intakes of nutrients and other food components that play significant roles in pro- moting and sustaining health and optimal functioning will be refined. Also, as new information or new methods of analysis are adopted, these reference values undoubtedly will be reassessed. Many of the questions that were raised about requirements and recommended intakes could not be answered satisfactorily for the reasons given above. Thus, among the panel’s major tasks was to outline a research agenda addressing information gaps uncovered in its review (Chapter 14). The research agenda is anticipated to help future policy decisions related to these and future recommendations. This agenda and the critical, com- prehensive analyses of available information are intended to assist the private sector, foundations, universities, governmental and international agencies and laboratories, and other institutions in the development of their respective research priorities for the next decade. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Arne Astrup, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University; George Blackburn, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Elsworth Buskirk, Pennsylvania State University; William Connor, Oregon Health and Science University; John Hathcock, Council for Responsible Nutrition; Satish Kalhan, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; Martijn Katan, Wageningen Agricultural University; David Kritchevsky, The Wistar Institute; Shiriki Kumanyika, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; William Lands, National Institutes of Health; Geoffrey Livesey, Independent Nutrition Logic; Ross Prentice, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center; Barbara Schneeman, University of California, Davis; Christopher Sempos, State University of New York, Buffalo; Virginia Stallings, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; Steve Taylor, University of Nebraska; Daniel Tomé, Institut National Agronomique Paris-Grinon; and Walter Willett, Harvard School of Public Health. The review of this report was overseen by Catherine Ross, Pennsylvania State University and Irwin Rosenberg, Tufts University, appointed by the Institute of Medicine, who were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The Food and Nutrition Board gratefully acknowledges the Canadian government’s support and Canadian scientists’ participation in this initia- tive. This close collaboration represents a pioneering first step in the har- monization of nutrient reference intakes in North America. The respective chairs and members of the Panel on Macronutrients and subcommittees performed their work under great time pressures. All gave their time and hard work willingly and without financial reward; the public and the science and practice of nutrition are among the major beneficiaries of their dedication. The Food and Nutrition Board thanks these indi- viduals, and especially the staff responsible for its development—in par- ticular, Paula Trumbo for coordinating this complex report, and Sandra Schlicker, who served as a program officer for the study. The intellectual and managerial contributions made by these individuals to the report’s comprehensiveness and scientific base were critical to fulfilling the project’s mandate. This report includes a review of the roles that macronutrients are known to play in traditional deficiency diseases as well as chronic diseases. The overall project is a comprehensive effort undertaken by the Stand- ing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, the National Academies, in collaboration with Health Canada (see Appendix B for a description of the overall process and its origins). This study was requested by the Federal Steering Committee for Dietary Reference Intakes, which is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion of the U. Life stage and gender were considered to the extent possible, but the data did not pro- vide a basis for proposing different requirements for men, for pregnant and nonlactating women, and for nonpregnant and nonlactating women in different age groups for many of the macronutrients. In all cases, data were examined closely to determine whether a functional endpoint could be used as a criterion of adequacy. The quality of studies was exam- ined by considering study design; methods used for measuring intake and indicators of adequacy; and biases, interactions, and confounding factors. Although the reference values are based on data, the data were often scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the various questions that confronted the panel. Therefore, many of the questions raised about the requirements for, and recommended intakes of, these macronutrients cannot be answered fully because of inadequacies in the present database. The reasoning used to establish the values is described for each nutrient in Chapters 5 through 10. While the various recommenda- tions are provided as single-rounded numbers for practical considerations, it is acknowledged that these values imply a precision not fully justified by the underlying data in the case of currently available human studies. Except for fiber, the scientific evidence related to the prevention of chronic degenerative disease was judged to be too nonspecific to be used as the basis for setting any of the recommended levels of intake for the nutrients. This energy is supplied by carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and alcohol in the diet. The energy balance of an individual depends on his or her dietary energy intake and energy expenditure. Carbohydrates (sugars and starches) provide energy to cells in the body, particularly the brain, which is a carbohydrate-dependent organ. There was insufficient evidence to set a daily intake of sugars or added sugars that individuals should aim for. Dietary Fiber is defined as nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants. Functional Fiber is defined as isolated, nondigestible carbohydrates that have been shown to have beneficial physi- ological effects in humans. Viscous fibers delay the gastric emptying of ingested foods into the small intestine, which can result in a sensation of fullness.

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However 162.5mg avalide visa, the major requirement for total nitrogen or protein is for the specific indispensable amino acids (and/or conditionally indispensable amino acids) and an additional source of α-amino nitrogen buy avalide from india. At appropriate intakes these main- tain protein homeostasis and adequate synthesis of those physiologically important compounds for which amino acids are the obligatory precursors (Table 10-5) buy avalide online from canada. For example, when protein intake is calculated by summing the weight of amino acids as analyzed in a food (less the water of hydrolysis), the protein/nitrogen ratio is 5. Thus when converting the amount of nitrogen present in a specific foodstuff to total protein, this factor becomes impor- tant to use. These differences in the protein-to-nitrogen ratio of food proteins are not of specific importance in reference to the development of the recom- mendations for protein requirements given herein. This is because these recommendations have been based initially on nitrogen balance determi- nations, which in turn were based on analytical measurements of nitrogen intake (from different test proteins or mixtures of proteins). The nitrogen intake values were then converted to protein intakes using the conven- tional 6. In this case, protein intakes and the relation between the amino acid concentrations in the protein should all be referred back to a nitrogen base. For this reason, amino acid requirement patterns delineated below are given in reference to both conventional protein (nitrogen × 6. Amino Acids Content of Proteins The second and generally more important factor that influences the nutritional value of a protein source is the relative content and metabolic availability of the individual indispensable amino acids. If the content of a single indispensable amino acid in the diet is less than the individual’s requirement, then it will limit the utilization of other amino acids and thus prevent normal rates of protein synthesis even when the total nitrogen intake level is adequate. Thus, the “limiting amino acid” will determine the nutritional value of the total nitrogen or protein in the diet. This has been illustrated in experiments comparing the relative ability of different protein sources to maintain nitrogen balance. For example, studies have shown, depending on its source and preparation, that more soy protein might be needed to maintain nitrogen balance when compared to egg- white protein, and that the difference may be eliminated by the addition of methionine to the soy diet. This indicates that sulfur amino acids can be limiting in soy (Zezulka and Calloway, 1976a, 1976b). The concept of the limiting amino acid has led to the practice of amino acid (or chemical) scoring, whereby the indispensable amino acid composition of the specific protein source is compared with that of a refer- ence amino acid composition profile. Table 10-23 shows the com- position of various food protein sources expressed as mg of amino acid per g of protein (nitrogen × 6. The composition of amino acids of egg and milk proteins is similar with the exception of the sulfur amino acids methionine and cysteine. However, wheat and beans have lower propor- tions of indispensable amino acids, especially of lysine and sulfur amino acids, respectively. Amino Acid Scoring and Protein Quality In recent years, the amino acid requirement values for humans have been used to develop reference amino acid patterns for purposes of evalu- ating the quality of food proteins or their capacity to efficiently meet both the nitrogen and indispensable amino acid requirements of the individual. Based on the estimated average requirements for the individual indispens- able amino acids presented earlier (Tables 10-20 and 10-21) and for total protein (nitrogen × 6. These are given in Table 10-24 together with the amino acid requirement pattern used for breast-fed infants. It should be noted that this latter pattern is that for human milk and so it is derived quite differently compared to that for the other age groups. There are three important points that need to be highlighted about the proposed amino acid scoring patterns. First, there are relatively small differences between the amino acid requirement and thus scoring patterns for children and adults, therefore use amino acid requirement pattern for 1 to 3 years of age is recommended as the reference pattern for purposes of assessment and planning of the protein component of diets. Second, the requirement pattern proposed here for adults is funda- mentally different from a number of previously recommended require- ment patterns (Table 10-25). The other requirement patterns shown in Table 10-25 for adults were pub- lished in two recent reviews (Millward, 1999; Young and Borgonha, 2000). Thus, the reference amino acid scoring patterns shown in Table 10-24 are designed for use in the evaluation of dietary protein quality. However, two important statistical considerations need to be raised here: first, the extent to which there is a correlation between nitrogen (protein) and the requirement for a specific indispensable amino acid; second, the impact of the variance for both protein and amino acid requirements on the derived amino acid reference pattern. The extent to which the requirements for specific indis- pensable amino acids and total protein are correlated is not known. In this report it is assumed that the variance in requirement for each indispens- able amino acid is the same as that for the adult protein requirement. This analysis illustrates one of the uncertainties faced in establishing a reference or scoring pattern and judging the nutritional value of a protein source for an individual. However, on the basis of different experimental studies in groups of subjects, experience shows that a reasonable approxi- mation of the mean value for the relative quality of a protein source or mixture of proteins can be obtained by use of the amino acid scoring pattern proposed in Table 10-26 and a standard amino acid scoring approach, examples of which are given in the following section. Comments on Protein Quality for Adults While the importance of considering protein quality in relation to the protein nutrition of the young has been firmly established and accepted over the years, the significance of protein quality (other than digestibility) of protein sources in adults has been controversial or less clear. The amino acid scoring pattern given in Table 10-24 for adults is not markedly differ- ent from that for the preschool age group, implying that protein quality should also be an important consideration in adult protein nutrition. It is important to realize however, that this aggregate analysis does not suggest that dietary protein quality is of no importance in adult protein nutrition. The examined and aggregated studies included an analysis of those that were designed to compare good quality soy protein (Istfan et al. The results of these studies showed clearly that the quality of well-processed soy proteins was equivalent to animal protein in the adults evaluated (which would be predicted from the amino acid reference pattern in Table 10-26), while wheat proteins were used with significantly lower efficiency than the animal protein (beef) (again this would be predicted from the procedure above). Thus, the aggregate analyses of all available studies analyzed by Rand and coworkers (2003) obscured these results and illustrate the conservative nature of their meta-analysis of the primary nitrogen balance. Moreover, this discussion and presentation of data in Table 10-27 underscores the fact that while lysine is likely to be the most limiting of the indispensable amino acids in diets based predominantly on cereal proteins, the risk of a lysine inadequacy is essentially removed by inclusion of relatively modest amounts of animal or other vegetable proteins, such as those from legumes and oilseeds, or through lysine fortification of cereal flour. Food Sources Protein from animal sources such as meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese, and yogurt provide all nine indispensable amino acids, and for this reason are referred to as “complete proteins. The protein content of 1 cup of yogurt is approximately 8 g, 1 cup of milk is 8 g, and 1 egg or 1 ounce of cheese contains about 6 g. In the United States, the median dietary intake of protein by adult men dur- ing 1994–1996 and 1998 ranged from 71 to 101 g/d for various age groups (Appendix Table E-16). For both men and women, protein provided approximately 15 per- cent of total calories (Appendix Table E-17). Similarly, in Canada, protein provided approximately 15 percent of total calories for adults (Appendix Table F-5). The median dietary intake of threonine by adult men during 1988–1994 ranged from 2. The median dietary intake of tryptophan by adult men and women during 1988–1994 ranged from 0. As intake is increased, the concentrations of free amino acids and urea in the blood increase postprandially.

Causes • Low-flow: ischemic avalide 162.5mg with mastercard, more common quality 162.5mg avalide, more dangerous order avalide 162.5 mg line, painful o Sickle cell disease, leukemia, idiopathic, spinal trauma (priaprism is painless), medications (antidepressant, anti-hypertensives, antipsychotic, chlorpromazine), drugs of abuse (alcohol, cocaine) o Aspirated blood from corpora cavernosa is dark red • High-flow: non-ischemic, less common; most often painless o Typically from direct injury to penis o Aspirated blood from corpora cavernosa is bright red and well oxygenated Signs and symptoms • Persistent, painful erection • Ask about trauma Investigations • Labs: none- clinical diagnosis Management: Determine whether priaprism is low flow or high flow by aspiration. Serial doses of lmL of dilute solution can be given every 5 minutes up to one hour ■ If phenylephrine not available, dilute O. Causes • Calcium oxalate (majority) • Infection stones • Uric acid Signs and symptoms • History o Patients often have rapid onset, excruciating pain (severe pain), typically from the back/flank radiating to the groin/front area. Small surveys in Rwanda suggest very high resistance rates for most commonly available antibiotics. Acute pharyngitis may lead to immediate complications including abscess, cellulitis, epiglottitis. Untreated pharyngitis may lead to a later complication of rheumatic fever, which is a leading cause of structural heart disease later in life. Examine patient for trismus (inability to open mouth), drooling, meningismus, stridor or other signs of severe disease or airway compromise. Severe disease may also present with inability to swallow or lie supine, muffled voice or respiratory distress (use of accessory muscles) o Patients with retropharyngeal abscess may hold the head stiff and complain of neck pain. In adults, often extends into mediastinum o Patients with peritonsillar abscess may lean to one side o Patients with simple pharyngitis will be well appearing, have a clear voice, no difficulty with respirations. May also see absence of a deep, well-defined vallecular air space running parallel to the pharyngotracheal air column that approaches the level of the hypoid bone (vallecula sign) in epiglottitis. Management: • The goal of management is to recognize simple throat infections and treat with appropriate antibiotics. Therefore, patients should be told that if they continue to have severe pain or fever after two days, they should return for further examination. Complications include puncture of the carotid artery, which could lead to massive hemorrhage. Insertion of the needle more than lcm runs the risk of puncturing the internal carotid artery. Internal carotid artery runs laterally and posterior to the posterior edge of the tonsil. Often present in a "tri-pod" position-sitting up and forward with obvious difficulty breathing or stridor. About 90% of bleeds come from a blood vessel in the anterior part of the nose and can be visualized. Ask patient to blow nose and clear clots in order to visualize bleeding vessel better. Attempt anterior nasal packing: Apply tetracycline ointment to tip of gauze before packing. Recommendations • Most cases of epistaxis are benign and resolve with good pressure to the nasal bridge. They can complain of pain in the jaw or have persistent pain on swallowing without fever. Ear, Nose Throat Foreign Body Definition: It is a foreign object inserted into the nose, ear, or throat. Causes • Typically self-inflicted by children putting foreign body into their nose or ear or swallowing foreign body. If a good light, otoscope/microscope, and tools like alligator forceps are available, it may be possible to try to remove a foreign body from the nose or the ear. Attempt to suction smooth objects like a bean or bead, but insects require alligator forceps under direct visualization • Foreign body in nose o If object can be visualized with light, can attempt the "Kissing Technique. It can be acute (occurring within the past few hours or days) or gradual (occurring within the past weeks or months). Drowsiness or lethargy is a minor change with slightly decreased wakefulness, but patient is aroused with verbal stimuli or light. Differential diagnosis: Several mnemonics can help to remember extensive differential diagnosis list. Acute Stroke Definition: A stroke is the acute loss of neurological function due to interruption of blood supply to the brain. Most strokes will present with a new focal neurologic deficit, such as unilateral weakness. However, both more severe presentations such as coma and more subtle presentations such as dizziness can be caused by a stroke. General management: Then general goal in management of all strokes includes consideration for airway protection, aspiration risk, blood pressure control, and immediate physiotherapy. However, the long- term prognosis in a patient in coma from severe stroke, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, is quite low. Specific management • Ischemic stroke o Thrombolytics are not currently recommended in our setting for ischemic stroke for the following reasons: ■ In order to cause more good than harm, these drugs must be used early, generally within 3-5 hours of stroke onset, which in almost all cases will be impossible to achieve. Even within this accepted time window, the value of thrombolysis for acute stroke continues to be debated. Good agents that have been studied for this indication include hydrochlorothiazide and long acting Nifedipine. Recommendations • Stroke in Rwanda appears to have a different risk factor profile and likely a different pathophysiology from those in more industrialized countries. Stroke guidelines from these settings may therefore not be as appropriate for application in Rwanda. Therapeutics such as aspirin, statins, or thrombolytics (for ischemic strokes) or neurosurgery (for hemorrhagic strokes) are not likely to be very effective in these cases. Rather, focus on good early stroke care with prevention of aspiration, fever control and early physiotherapy. Young patients or those with an unclear presentations or history should be referred to referral center for advanced imaging and further workup. Non-traumatic Headache Definition: Pain in the head that can be classified as acute and singular (first headache), acute recurrent, or chronic in nature. If symptoms change or worsen, tell the patient to return to the hospital for evaluation. Seizure Definition: Uncontrolled shaking in the body from excessive and disorderly neuronal discharge in the cerebral cortex. Status epilepticus is defined as a seizure that lasts 5-10 minutes or two seizures without full recovery between them. If a seizure lasts more than 30 minutes, the body can no longer regulate homeostasis- blood pressure drops and acidosis builds, sometimes resulting in neuronal damage. Management: General goal is to stop the seizures as soon as possible to prevent permanent brain damage and aspiration. Once seizures are under control, patient should return to normal mental baseline between 1-8 hours. Once seizures are controlled for 24hr, wean off thiopental by decreasing the dose by lmg/kg every 12hr. The most common reaction, simple febrile reaction, is not life-threatening, but needs to be recognized early. Other reactions are more rare, but have a very high mortality rate (acute hemolysis and transfusion-related acute lung injury), and must be recognized and treated immediately.

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