By G. Delazar. Rice University.
Nalbuphine (Nubain) is an opioid agonist/antagonist analgesic used for the treat- 304 Stark and Norfolk ment of moderate-to-severe pain order 5mg clarinex mastercard, and dependence has been reported associated with anabolic steroid use (96) generic clarinex 5mg fast delivery. Furthermore generic clarinex 5mg on-line, there has been a case report of a 21-year-old body builder who was admitted after taking excessive amounts of insulin intravenously; apparently, insulin is advertised in body-building magazines as having ana- bolic properties (97). The recreational use of caffeine to toxic levels has been reported in a body builder who presented with a grand mal seizure (98). Clenbuterol, which is a sympathomimetic agonist (used as a oral bronchodila- tor in some European countries but not licensed for human use in the United Kingdom or United States) is said to have an “anabolic-like” effect but at high dose may cause cardiac dysrhythmias, tremor, and serious hypokalemia (99). It has been used as an anesthetic (although it has little analgesic effect), to alleviate narcolepsy, and to treat alcohol and opiate dependence (101). There have been reports of abuse in the United Kingdom and United States within the dance scene and gay clubs and with body builders because it is said to promote slow-wave sleep during which growth hormone is secreted (102). It is available as a color- less, odorless liquid, powder, or a capsule to be taken orally; it is rarely injected. It has a half-life of 30 minutes (103), and effects can last from 45 minutes to 8 h (104). Initial effects include euphoria followed by profound sedation, confu- sion, agitation, amnesia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, seizures, hypoto- nia, tremor, vertigo and dizziness, bradycardia, hypotension, hypothermia, coma (105), and respiratory collapse. Tolerance and physi- cal dependence after high-dose use can develop with a withdrawal syndrome, which may include insomnia, muscular cramping, tremor, and anxiety (101). A rapid deterioration into delirium may occur in more frequent high-dose dependent users. Withdrawal is not associated with seizures, but if suspected, hospital admission should be considered (108). Ketamine Ketamine is a commercially available anesthetic for intravenous and intra- muscular use. It contains analgesic properties and is available on the street in Substance Misuse 305 powder, tablet, and liquid form; it can be smoked or taken intranasally (“snorted”), orally, intramuscularly, or intravenously (109). The onset of effects depends on the route of administration; when taken orally, effects start within 20 minutes and can last up to 3 hours, whereas given intravenously, effects will be seen within 30 seconds and last about 30 minutes (110). Physical effects may include a cocaine-like “rush,” hypertension, dysrhythmias, nausea, and vomiting, slurred speech, nystagmus, lack of coor- dination, and seizures. On recovery, “emergence phenomena” may occur, with psychological dissociation or out of body (flying or floating) sensations, con- fusion, hallucinations, synesthesia, and depersonalization (112). Such disso- ciative states may result in the individual becoming divorced from reality, and these effects, coupled with possible loss of coordination and pronounced anal- gesia, can result in serious accidents to users. A dose-dependent depression of respiration may occur (113), and this can be a particular problem when taken with other respiratory depressant drugs, such as benzodiazepines and alcohol, occasionally resulting in death (114). Alkyl Nitrites The alkyl nitrites are volatile yellowish clear liquids that have a distinc- tive sweet smell. All the nitrites have vasodilatory properties and are used as a euphoric relaxant within the dance culture and to relax the anal sphincter and enhance sexual performance. The effect of inhaling the vapor, usually from the bottle or poured onto a cloth, is instantaneous and short-lived, resulting in a “rush,” but adverse effects, such as dizziness, flushing, tachycardia and pal- pitations, headache, cold sweats, and hypotension, may occur (115,116). Swal- lowing of volatile nitrites as opposed to inhaling them may result in severe methemoglobinemia (117). One review found that the incidence of alcohol-related violent crime ranged from 24 to 85%, which contrasted dramatically with the 12–38% incidence of alcohol-related nonviolent crime (118). Although some have confirmed the association between alcohol and crime (119,120), a direct causal link between the two has been disputed (121). Nonetheless, alcohol assumes an importance in clinical forensic medicine because of its link with criminal activity and by virtue of the significant role it plays in a large number of assessments regarding fitness for detention (122–124). Accordingly, a thor- ough understanding of the metabolism, effects, and problems associated with 306 Stark and Norfolk alcohol is essential for any doctor practicing in this field, not least because those detainees with alcohol problems, particularly those with gross intoxi- cation, are an extremely vulnerable group for whom police custody may be inappropriate (125). The Metabolism of Alcohol Ethanol, hereafter referred to as alcohol, is produced by the fermentation of sugar by yeast, a process that halts at a concentration of alcohol by volume of approx 15% because of the death of yeast above these levels. As a rough guide, one measure of spirits, one glass of wine, or one half-pint of beer con- tain 1 U, or 8 g, of alcohol. However, there is a variation in the alcohol content of different drinks (126), and any accurate assessment of intake must bear this in mind. In the European Union, there is now international agreement about the labeling of alcohol content, with the alcohol content of beverages being referred to by the percentage alcohol by volume (percent v/v) (127). This is equivalent to the number of milliliters of pure alcohol per 100 mL of the drink. In the United States, alcoholic strengths are measured in terms of percentage proof. Most people who have alcohol in the body have drunk it, although it can be absorbed into the systemic circulation through the lungs (blood alcohol concentrations of up to 50 mg/100 mL have been achieved after breathing alcohol/air mixtures for several hours) (128). Once ingested, alcohol is subsequently absorbed into the body by a pro- cess of passive diffusion that occurs across the mucosal surfaces of the gas- trointestinal tract (129). As liquids pass quickly through the mouth and esophagus, little absorption occurs until alcohol has reached the stomach. The rate of absorption is maximal in the duodenum, because its mucosa is thinner and blood supply more abundant than that of the stomach. Accordingly, any condition that delivers alcohol into the small intestine more quickly than nor- mal, such as gastrectomy, will lead to more rapid absorption and an earlier, higher peak blood alcohol level (130). As soon as alcohol enters the bloodstream, mechanisms for its removal come into action. Approximately 5–10% of the total amount absorbed is excreted unchanged in breath, urine, and sweat (129), an important factor that allows the estimation of blood alcohol concentrations from the levels in urine and breath. The remaining 90–95% of alcohol is oxidized in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase to form acetaldehyde, and this is further metabo- lized to acetate (acetic acid). The rate of absorption is much faster than the rate of elimination, giving rise to the characteristic blood alcohol curve, as described by several researchers (Fig. Generally speaking, the peak blood alcohol concentration is reached 30–60 minutes after drinking, although the range may be anything from 20 minutes to 3 hours. However, the peak blood alcohol concentration, the time taken to reach the peak, the area under the blood alcohol curve, and the time taken to reach a zero blood alcohol level varies from person to person and within the same person over time (135). Sex and Weight Alcohol is highly hydrophilic, so once it enters the systemic circulation, it is distributed evenly throughout total body water (Vd, or the volume of dis- tribution). In general, the larger the person the larger the Vd, so that if two different sized males drink the same quantity of alcohol, a higher peak con- centration will be reached in the lighter of the two because he will have a smaller Vd for the alcohol to distribute itself throughout. Similarly, because 308 Stark and Norfolk women have more body fat compared with men, and fat contains no water, higher peak alcohol levels are achieved in women than in men of the same weight. Duration of Drinking If a volume of alcohol is consumed over a prolonged period, it may be eliminated almost as quickly as it is absorbed, giving rise to a much lower peak alcohol concentration.
Those Europeans who tried to find out more about the plants used in earlier times were sometimes misinformed through Aboriginal willingness to please purchase 5mg clarinex overnight delivery. Aboriginals are sometimes so very willing to give names of plants to the traveller that cheap 5mg clarinex with visa, rather than disappoint him discount clarinex 5mg fast delivery, they will prepare a few for the occasion. The nineteenth century settlers noted that Aborigines were well acquainted with these conditions and employed a number of plants to remedy them. The gummy exudates (known collectively as kino) from various species of eucalyptus, notably Eucalyptus siderophloia and other trees or bushes, were regularly chewed to slow down or stop diarrhoea. Many of these kino exudates have since been shown to contain tannins or other astringent compounds that inhibit secretions of the gastrointestinal tract. The wood of this tree has what is described as a ‘nauseating odour’ but its resinous exudates, when placed in tooth cavities, did relieve the pain of toothache. Many other plants, including several species of acacia, were used as painkillers for both internal and external sources of pain. A number of these also had sedative properties, especially those in the Solanaceae and Lobeli- aceae families, the best known of which is the plant known as ‘pituri’ (Duboisia hopwoodii). The leaves of pituri were chewed in much the same manner as is tobacco and produced a number of similar effects, initially stimulation of activity, followed by lethargy and fatigue. The plant grows in many parts of Australia and its use by Aborigines was so well known that it was considered to be like:. Under these conditions fungal and viral infections could spread rapidly, as did parasitic infestations such as scabies. Warts also appear to have been common and were removed by inserting sharp spines of an acacia under them and then pulling away the withered wart an hour or so later. The milky sap of the native fig was used to treat ringworm, as were resins of the eucalypt species, red blood wood and a Myristica species, the Queensland nutmeg. The Aborigines used many plants to treat general infections although these were not widespread before the arrival of the Europeans. Nevertheless, 43 reme- dies were listed in a 1903 bulletin entitled ‘Superstition, magic and medi- cine’. Such extracts were then taken internally or used to bathe the skin, eyes or other affected parts. Euca- lypts were also widely used to ease disordered breathing by breaking up phlegm and reducing the swelling of mucous membranes. The settlers investigated the medicinal value of a number of indigenous plants basing their choices on similarities that they observed between these and the European plants with which they were more familiar. One of the first to be identified as being medicinally useful was a species of eucalyptus (E. The Australian oil has a much stronger smell than its European counterpart and so was used in smaller quantities – happily as it turns out because eucalyptus oil is chemically different from peppermint oil and a great deal more toxic. These often contained small quantities of quinine or other bitter- tasting substances and were used to stimulate saliva flow and thus promote general well-being. Aborigines appeared not to have used their plants for such purposes but the settlers identified – after some trial and error – that a number of Australian plants could substitute for remedies used in Europe. Some plants such as Centaurium spicatum were ‘pleasantly bitter’; others such as bitter bark, Alstonia constrica, were much less pleasant leaving a long-lasting bitter after-taste in the mouth. A number of them appear to have been chosen on the similia similibus curantur or ‘like treats like’ principle, one favoured by many cultures in different regions and at different times. This was especially evident in their choice of some plants Traditional medicines in the Pacific | 277 Figure 10. Plants that grew close to water were thus used to treat those people who had pain or difficulty with urination. Plants such as Euphorbia drummondii, which produced a sticky exudate, were used to treat gonorrhoea, a disease with a pus discharge of similar appearance. The volatile oil, tea tree oil, which is extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia, is widely promoted as an antiseptic, antibacterial and antifungal agent, and is included in numerous cleaning and cosmetic products, as are the oils of many Eucalyptus species. The kangaroo apple bush, Solanum aviculare, is a source of alkaloids related to the steroids produced in the Mexican yam, and which could also become a viable source of the starting materials for oral contraceptive synthesis. These commercial successes, together with the increasing trend in western society to utilise herbal medicines, has revived interest in Australia’s flora and traditional herbal medicine history. A systematic search of infor- mation in Australia’s Northern Territory about Aboriginal use of plants led in 1988 to the compilation of the first Aboriginal pharmacopoeia of the Northern Territories. More recent research has compared the efficacy of certain traditional remedies with western preparations used for the same conditions, and has found them to be at least as effective, especially when used to treat skin problems such as boils and other general surface infections. As traditional remedies are often more acceptable than western ones to some Aboriginal communities, such medi- cines may be used to improve the often very poor general health of people in these communities. It is ironic that a people whose culture is so ancient and who live in a country with a flora that is at least potentially so medicinally active should have such poor health that their life expectancy is almost 20 years less than that of ‘immigrant’ Australians. One of several strategies being employed to help reduce this inequity has been the recent introduction of support for traditional healers and other Aboriginal health workers in Aboriginal communities. The hope is that their use of a combination of traditional and western medicine will help promote a greater sense of ownership, pride and thus self-worth in the people of these communities, and thus ultimately better general health. Fiji It is difficult to determine which of Fiji’s flora are indigenous and which introduced by its human inhabitants. The forest plants seem, however, to be the oldest surviving species while later ones appear to include most of the Traditional medicines in the Pacific | 279 food and medicinally active species. Many of these are not specific to Fiji but are found throughout tropical regions in south-east Asia and the Pacific. Those used by the Indo-Fijian population are generally the ones favoured by the ayurvedic tradition of medicine (discussed in Chapter 7). The health of pre-European Fijians appears to have been generally good, although diseases such as yaws, filariasis, malaria and other fever-producing conditions were recorded. Post-European settlement, however, the Fijians suffered from imported diseases such as gonorrhoea, diphtheria and measles, so much so in fact that it was feared that the population might even die out completely. Early Europeans could obtain little information about plants used as medicines by the local population. One such person writing in the 1860s complained that the women who seemed to have knowledge of medi- cinally useful plants could not be induced to part with this knowledge because it was a source of income for them. Minor problems such as coughs and colds, headaches or earache, other- wise known as mate vayano, were just accidental occurrences that were thus responsive to physical treatments whereas mate ni vanua, ‘diseases of the land’ were due to spirit interference and as such could be treated only much more rigorously, usually with the assistance of sorcerers (dauvakatevoro) as well as those who had knowledge of the medicinal plants required. The cere- monies involved in treating such conditions, similar to many other ceremo- nial occasions in Fiji, usually included the use of infusions of yaqona, a drink prepared from the powdered root of the kava plant (Piper methysticum). This drink is a mild sedative which is said to be effective in the treatment of many different conditions, ranging from coughs and colds to filariasis10 (Figure 10. Leaves and bark were frequently used, generally by soaking in hot or boiling water.
As before buy cheap clarinex 5mg on-line, single-dose studies may sufﬁce when there is reason to believe that all the stages of liver dis- ease that are being studied generic clarinex 5 mg with visa, the pharmacokinetics of a single dose are indeed predictive of the multi- In general purchase clarinex 5mg without prescription, studies are needed for all drugs to which ple dose/steady state situation. When drugs are the liver is exposed, unless being developed for more than one route of administration, then usually one can be chosen drug excretion is entirely renal that provides the maximum information, and the need to study the second route is obviated. However, small Most regulatory authorities allow some relaxation numbers of patients usually make this quite of the requirement for studies when the drug is for difﬁcult. This demands computational we cannot offer a comprehensive discussion of expense that would have been unimaginable even this ﬁeld in this chapter, nor shall that be the case in the mid-1990s. The interested reader is now online and in the public domain, including encouraged to consult the huge literature on this those for popular nonhuman experimental models, subject, which now includes some useful general such as for worms (e. There is also a human rare metabolic disease phenotypic database available (http:// www. For a comprehensive description cialty among statisticians, engineers and mathe- of the science of pharmacogenomics, the authors maticians. These values are given in the next in a clinical drug trial, it is equally important to row. Thus, the the blood pressure of an individual subject repeat- average (mean) of the deviations around the mean edly, the measurements will be dispersed around is always zero, and therefore is not useful as a some central value in a random fashion; some will measure of the variability. The effect, however, is the mean of the squares of the deviations about systematic. The variance is an average of after administering an antihypertensive drug, the nonnegative numbers and it is, therefore, always a pretreatment and posttreatment measurements will nonnegative number. It is equal to 0 if and only if all be dispersed around different central values, the the deviates are equal to zero, meaning that all the posttreatment value lower than the pretreatment measurements are the same and thus equal to their value. The magnitude of the effect (signal) is usually mean, that is, there is no variability at all. The variability (noise) is used measure of variability, is the square root of usually calculated as the standard deviation. Example: Suppose 10 hypertensive subjects are The advantage of using the standard deviation over treated with a novel antihypertensive drug. The the variance is that it is measured with the same subjects’ blood pressure is measured at 8:00 a. The mean does not represent the just prior to the administration of the drug, and then response to treatment of any particular individual. It does, though, give us an idea of the magnitude of The ﬁrst and the second rows of the table give the the response to treatment produced by the drug. The third row gives the If the drug is ineffective, then there should be no change () in diastolic pressure (value in row 1 systematic change in blood pressure measurements minus the value in row 2). The mean, given in the taken 1 h after treatment as compared to pretreat- last column, is 12. The observed have discussed earlier, we cannot assess its signiﬁ- mean change of 12. Indeed, the values of range from 4to that a sample of 10 numbers drawn at random from 33, a substantial range. To assess ’s variability, we a set of numbers with mean zero (in our example, Subject Mean 1 Before treatment 102 78 95 86 109 107 100 86 96 92 95. It seems that mere knowledge that the subject is being treated for its condition often produces a measurable favorable response (Bok, 1974; Gribbin, 1981). A high placebo A statistical model consists of a set of assumptions response will tend to mask the response of the about the nature of the data to be collected in the experimental drug. Since placebo is rarely used trial and about the interrelationships among var- outside the clinical research setting, some people ious variables. These assumptions must be speciﬁc argue that the comparison with placebo tends to enough that they could be expressed by a set of show lower response rates for the drug than would mathematical expressions and equations. Thus, goes the For example: In a placebo-controlled clinical argument, the placebo-controlled trial puts the test trial for testing a new analgesic for treatment of drug at a disadvantage. The counter argument is migraine headaches, the key efﬁcacy variable is that what one sees in the clinic is perhaps the the number of subjects whose headache is combination of the placebo effect plus the drug’s eliminated within 1 h of treatment. A statistical biological effect, and therefore, establishing the model appropriate for this situation is as residual effect of the drug over its inherent placebo follows: effect should be the true objective of the trial. Let denote the probability that a subject treated Whatever the case might be, the placebo effect with a drug will have their headache disappear 1 h invariably results in decrease in the signal-to- after treatment, following an episode of migraine noise ratio. If the responses of different subjects are to select subjects whose placebo response is low independent of each other, this probability can be or nil. One way of accomplishing this is by treating expressed as prospective subjects with placebo for some time prior to randomization. Patients whose response Prob no of responses during this screening phase is high or very variable are then disqualiﬁed from participating in the trial. The statistical model is the mathematical frame- The data collected during the trial will pro- work in which the statistician operates. It provides vide information about d and p, enabling the For example, for 005, then Z1005196 that the probability statement about the conﬁdence and Z2005196. It is a Now, by substituting the deﬁnition of in theoretical probability pertaining to a generic inter- expression (2) with 21 and val calculated from a sample following the steps we rearranging terms, the inequality 1 2 described above. Thus, if we could repeat the can be re-written as experiment many times, each time calculating a conﬁdence interval in the way we have just done, we should expect approximately 95% of these 4 intervals to contain the true mean effect. Of course, when calculating a conﬁdence interval Now, let us take a closer look at expression (4). The from a sample, there is no way to tell whether or value at the center, , is the population mean, which not the interval contains the parameter it is estimat- is the unknown quantity we are estimating. The conﬁdence level provides us with a certain expressions on the right-hand and the left-hand level of assurance that it is so, in the sense we just sides of (4) are variables calculated from the data. One might ask, why not choose to be a Thus, expression (4) represents a random interval very small number such as 0. The can see from the way () is deﬁned that it interpretation of this is that if we conduct an experi- increases as decreases. For example, 001 ment and calculate the lower and upper limits of the 258 and 0001325 which would corre- interval, and , respectively, then the interval spond to the conﬁdence intervals (2. The interval (4) self-evident: Yes, one can choose an arbitrarily is called a for the population high conﬁdence level but this will come at the mean, and 1 is called the of the price that the resulting conﬁdence interval will be interval, often expressed as a percent. In other Let us illustrate these ideas using the data of words, there is a tradeoff between conﬁdence and Table 25. It seems that 95% conﬁdence achieves a ference between the population means of the satisfactory balance between the two in most cases. The conﬁdence interval gives us 196, we obtain the conﬁdence limits additional information as to the size of the effect. The purpose of such analyses is to explore the data, identify possible effects and generate hypotheses for future studies rather than and make speciﬁc inferences. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Simply stated, many of the changes have just not had sufﬁcient time to get into the process. Epidemiology and Statistics, Compliance, Phar- maceutical Sciences (including a specialized ofﬁce of New Drug Chemistry), Biopharmaceutics and Generic Drugs. Similar compilations were also issued in Mantua in 1559; Augsburg, 1564; Cologne, 1565; Bologna, 1574; Bergamo, 1580; and Rome, 1583.
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