By S. Porgan. Pickering University. 2019.
This system of The well-being of a blind or partially sighted reading for the blind was introduced from person can be greatly enhanced by relatively France more than 100 years ago purchase 50 mg asendin with visa. Advice in the home the alphabet are represented by numbers of about the use of gas or electricity can be impor- raised dots on stiff paper buy asendin 50 mg fast delivery. Blind children can tant and the patient can be made aware of the learn Braille rapidly and develop a high reading availability of local social clubs for the blind or speed quality 50 mg asendin. An elderly sufciently sensitive and this applies especially patient who plays the piano can be helped to diabetics. Books in Braille are now available by the provision of an enlarged photocopy in many different languages. In spite of all books and newspapers are now very popular these various possibilities, one must not for- among blind and partially sighted people of get that the simplest and most useful reading all ages. The Talking-Book Service provides a aid for a partially sighted person is a good comprehensive library for the use of the light directed onto the page. For those with some residual vision, a special telephone pad Articial Eyes with large numbers on it can be helpful. Other ingenious devices range from relief maps that These can be made of glass or plastic molded can be felt by the blind person, to a telephone to the shape of the eye socket and painted to that speaks back through the earpiece the digit match the other eye. Research has also and washed at night by the patient and replaced been carried out on aids that signal the position the following morning. A slight degree of dis- of objects by means of electrical stimuli to the charge from the socket is the rule but excessive 206 Common Eye Diseases and their Management discharge can indicate that the socket is becom- Surgical removal of an eye (enucleation) is con- ing infected. This, in turn, might be because of sidered in the following circumstances: roughening of the articial eye with wear. Under these circumstances, arrangements should be when the eye is blind and painful made for the prosthesis to be replaced or pol- when the eye contains a malignant tumour ished. It should always be borne in mind that a patient with an articial eye might have had the when the eye is nearly blind and sym- eye removed because it contained a malignant pathetic ophthalmitis is a risk following a tumour, in which case one must consider the perforating injury. A well-made articial eye is almost Before having an eye removed, the patient undetectable to the untrained eye but normal must be made fully aware of all the advantages movements of the eye can be restricted. A general anaesthetic is days, the use of orbital prostheses deep to the needed and the patient remains in hospital for conjunctiva and attached to the eye muscles gives one to two nights after the operation. After many years common practice to t the socket with a trans- and after renewing the articial eye on several parent plastic shell for a few weeks until the occasions,the eye can appear to sink downwards. The challenge is therefore great as to how to respond to the vast need for effective partner notification in patients diagnosed in Primary Care. Network methodologies, contact tracing, gonorrhoea, and human immunodeficiency virus. Sexual histories, partnerships and networks associated with the transmission of gonorrhoea. Patterns of Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection in sexual networks in Manitoba, Canada. Partner referral by patients with gonorrhoea and chlamydial infection; case finding observations. Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24:334-43 32 Ramstedt K, Halligen B, Britt-Inger L, Hakansson C. Outcome of contact tracing for Chlamydia trachomatis in a district general hospital. Phase specific strategies for the prevention, control, and elimination of sexually transmitted diseases: background country profile, England and Wales. Partner notification for sexually transmitted diseases: proposed practice guidelines. The role of sexual partnership networks in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, Sex Transm Dis 1997; 24(1):45-56. This chapter describes how health advisers use interview structure and techniques to minimise resistance and encourage participation. It is important that all members of the multidisciplinary team are supportive of partner notification, and that an efficient internal referral system is in place. The health adviser therefore has a role in ensuring that: All staff understand which patients are to be seen by the health adviser All staff understand the rationale, process and importance of partner notification All staff understand their particular role in facilitating the interview Referrals are worded positively ( It will be helpful for you to see the health adviser is better than I m afraid you ve got to see the health adviser. However, if the patient is unlikely to wait after treatment has been given, it may be useful to offer the interview beforehand. Medication can be given at the same time, to streamline care, if the health adviser is approved to dispense. Some index patients are informed of their diagnosis over the telephone when being recalled for treatment. Arranging for the patient and the regular partner to attend on the same day could reduce the risk of re-infection. The patient can be advised of the need to avoid exposure to untreated partners whilst being reassured that they do not need to notify anybody at this stage. Preliminary discussion about who may need to be notified if an infection were found can be a useful preparation for the patient, and can yield valuable information for the health adviser. It is worth remembering that the patient may not return, particularly if he or she has already received medication. In this situation it is much easier to follow-up partner notification issues by telephone when preliminary face-to-face discussions have already taken place. Interpreters may also be necessary if there are language difficulties (see Ch 36: Working with Interpreters. It is also an opportunity to build the trust, goodwill and rapport necessary for co-operation with partner notification. This could make it difficult for the individual to absorb information given by the doctor or nurse at the time. It is important to clarify the patient s understanding early in the interview because subsequent misconceptions may lead to unnecessary anxieties or reduce compliance with treatment. Furthermore, awareness of routes of transmission and incubation periods is necessary to help identify contacts at risk and prevent re-infection. Knowing the serious consequences of untreated infection may encourage co-operation with partner notification. Questioning style The patient s level of understanding can be assessed most effectively by using open questions that encourage the sharing of details, such as: What has already been explained about. This enables the health adviser to pitch further information and discussion at an appropriate level, without mystifying or patronising the patient. Information tailored to the specific needs of the individual is more likely to be taken on board. It is essential to build rapport at this early stage by personalising the discussion and encouraging dialogue: if the health adviser is doing all the talking, and information is given in standardised form, the patient may disengage; this could make it more difficult to involve the patient in discussion about partners. It is also important to avoid overloading a person with more information than is needed, or can be absorbed, at an emotionally stressful time.
Therefore discount asendin 50mg amex, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism of cardiovascular aging and how the age-related changes in the cardiovascular system interact with the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to cardiovascular disease order 50mg asendin visa. In this chapter generic asendin 50mg without prescription, we will describe the characteristics of cardio- vascular aging in humans and in mammalian models, and review the roles of different hallmarks of aging in cardiovascular aging. Valvular degeneration in the aging heart is not addressed in this review, and the reader is referred to other sources [2, 3]. On the one hand, a unied interpretation of identied cardiac aging changes at rest in otherwise healthy persons (Fig. Modest increases in collagen levels and non-enzymatic cross linking, rendering collagen stiffer, also occur with aging. In older hospitalized patients without apparent cardio- vascular disease, however, the cardiac myocyte-to-collagen mass ratio in the older heart either remains constant or increases because of an increase in myocyte size. The left ventricle and the central arteries have bidirectional constant interactions. This tight heart-arterial coupling is thought to allow the cardiovascular system to optimize energetic efciency. One disadvantage of prolonged contraction is that at the time of the mitral valve opening, myocardial relaxation is relatively more incomplete in older than in younger indi- viduals. Ventricular contraction Isovolumic contraction -Relatively preserved - Prolonged with age with age Late ventricular filling (atrial contraction) -Increased contribution with age Early ventricular filling (ventricular relaxation) Isovolumic relaxation -Impaired relaxation and -Prolonged with age reduced contribution with age Fig. With age, ventricular systole remains relative preserved while isovolumic relaxation and contraction are prolonged. However, concomitant adaptations left atrial enlargement and an enhanced atrial contribution to ventricular lling (Fig. Mechanisms that underlie the age-associated reduction in maximum ejection fraction are multifacto- rial and include a reduction in intrinsic myocardial contractility, an increase in vas- cular afterload, and arterial-ventricular load mismatching. Notably, this loss of reserve limits exercise capacity and contributes to frailty in the elderly. Sympathetic neural impulses to the heart via beta-adrenergic receptor stimu- lation of heart and vascular cells elicit the recruitment of cardiovascular reserve capacity during stress. Multiple lines of evidence support the idea that the efciency of postsynaptic beta-adrenergic signaling declines with aging in numerous species . One line of evidence stems from the observation that cardiovascular responses to beta- adrenergic agonist infusions at rest decrease with age in humans and mammalian models. A second type of evidence is that acute beta-adrenergic receptor blockade changes the exercise hemodynamic prole of younger persons to make it resemble that of older individuals. In older dogs it has also been observed that an age-associated increase in aortic impedance during exercise is abolished by acute beta-adrenergic blockade [12 ]. Apparent decits in sympathetic modulation of cardiac and arterial functions with aging occur in the presence of exaggerated neurotransmitter levels. Plasma levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine, during any perturbation from the supine basal state, increase to a greater extent in older compared with younger healthy humans. The age-associated increase in plasma levels of norepinephrine results from an increased spillover into the circulation and, to a lesser extent, reduced plasma clearance. Decient norepinephrine reuptake at nerve endings is a primary mechanism for increased spillover into the circulation of older persons during acute, graded exercise (exercise intensity is progressively increased until the subject reaches a self-imposed fatigue level). During prolonged exercise, however, diminished neurotransmitter reuptake might also be associated with depletion and reduced release and spillover in older persons. It is a physiological phenomenon that reects different inputs to the cardiac conduction system and variation results from normal uctuation in these inputs (not to be con- fused with arrhythmia, described below). Over a 10-year mean follow-up period, isolated atrial premature beats, even if frequent, were not predictive of increased cardiac risk in these individuals [14 ]. Diffuse intima- media thickening, however, should not be construed as synonymous with Cardiovascular Disease and Aging 127 subclinical atherosclerosis, particularly in the absence of plaques. One of the hallmarks of central arterial aging is an age-associated increase in arterial wall stiffness. The age-associated increase in stiffness has frequently been attributed to the fraying and breakdown of elastin due to the lifelong repeated cycles of distention and recoil of the central aorta as well as the increased deposition and covalent cross-linking of collagen molecules. It is now recognized that arterial stiff- ening can be modulated by several factors besides aging, including lifestyle (e. Manifestations of arterial aging vary among the different vascular beds, reecting differences in the structural compositions of the arteries and perhaps differences in the age-associated signaling cascades that modulate the arterial properties, or differences in the response to these signals across the arterial tree. For example, in contrast to the central elastic arteries the stiffness of the muscular arteries does not increase with age (e. Aortic pulse wave velocity has been anointed the gold standard for the nonin- vasive assessment of central arterial stiffness . Pulse wave velocity has been shown to be an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality in healthy sub- jects and in individuals with various levels of cardiovascular risk. It is likely that arterial stiffness is not only a risk marker but also a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Increased central arterial stiffening is a likely explanation of the age-associated changes in blood pressures, whereby systolic blood pressure continues to increase with advancing age, and diastolic blood pressure increases until the fth decade, then levels off and starts to decrease after the age of 60 years . The decrease in diastolic blood pressure may compromise coronary blood ow, which occurs pre- dominantly in diastole, and a further increase in pulse pressure, which can be twice as high in older vs. Numerous clinical and epidemiologic studies in several different populations with varying prevalence of cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that central pulse pressure is an important predictor of adverse outcomes, often more potent than systolic or diastolic blood pressures. Increased central arterial pulse pressure is transmitted to small arteries of the kidney and heart, damaging these vessels and organs, often resulting in stroke, myocardial infarction and chronic renal disease which increase exponentially with advancing age. Both animal and clinical studies have recently demonstrated that arterial stiffness pre- cedes the development of hypertension [26 28]. Interventions to prevent or to delay arterial stiffening have predominantly focused on pharmacologic antihypertensive therapies. However, these strategies are aimed at lowering blood pressure, whereby the reduction in stiffness is a secondary effect due to reverse remodeling of the arte- 128 Y. Because central arterial stiffness is a potent predictor of mortality and morbidity independent of blood pressure, a more direct approach that would target the stiffening process is desirable. Although these age-associated changes do not usually result in clinical heart disease per se, they do compromise the cardiac reserve capacity and affect the threshold for symptoms and signs, as well as the severity and prognosis of heart failure secondary to any given disease-related challenge. These three cardiac diagnoses become interrelated in older per- sons, in part because of this link with age-associated cardiac changes. An age- dependent increase in left ventricular mass increases the stiffness of the left ventricle and promotes an increase in end diastolic lling pressure, which is an important contributor to diastolic heart failure in older persons. Cardiovascular Disease and Aging 129 3 Cardiovascular Aging in Mammalian Models 3. Cardiac aging responses have been characterized in multiple animal models, including nonhuman primates, dogs, rats and mice. However, due to the different species, strains and denitions of age groups used by different studies, the results should be interpreted cautiously. While the rodent heart is different from those of primates and other larger mammals (particu- larly the electrical conduction system), in general, cardiac aging in rodents closely recapitulates the cardiac aging phenotypes seen in humans without overt cardiovas- cular diseases . Dai and colleagues showed in a mouse longevity cohort that there were signicant age-dependent linear trends for several cardiac parameters .
You can only work as long as you have stored glycogen ready to be changed into glucose discount asendin 50 mg on-line. Excess protein intake (at any time) increases urine elimination buy cheap asendin 50 mg on line, which produces dehydration unless you are drinking enough water buy asendin 50 mg overnight delivery. The person feels dependent on taking them, until the physical damage becomes deeply ingrained. At the moment of the lift, breathing stops, circulation to the heart decreases, and great pressure is placed on the heart and lungs by surrounding muscles. Here are several suggestions to get it back into shape: Relax and practice standing up straight. Notice that doing so makes it easier to take full breaths of air, and you feel better. Here are more ideas: Lie on the floor with your chin down and head straight forward. If not, they pull your body forward; your back slumps; and you work harder, trying keep your back upright. Television news announcers use the following two methods, to make a better appearance when they talk while being seated: (1) Tend to sit on the edge of your chair; you will be less likely to slump back into it. Either place a small cushion behind the small of your back or use the seat adjustment available in some cars. Your spinal column has a complicated interconnection of muscles, tendons, bones, and ligaments. It is helpful to identify the various parts of the spine, also called the vertebrae (singular is vertebra): The top part of the spine, where the neck is located, is called the cervical spine (or cervicals); the shoulder and mid-part (which protrudes outward in an adult) is called the thoracic; the lower portion (called the hollow of the back) is the lumbar; and the bottom part (ending in the tailbone or coccyx) is the sacrum. The sacroiliac joint connects (articulates is the correct word) the spine to the pelvic bone. Sciatica is chronic pain in the sciatic nerve, which is the largest nerve in the body. This nerve, which passes down through the upper leg, can experience neuralgia and neuritis as a result of a pinched nerve in the lumbar region. If the problem is not solved, eventually the leg where the pain is may no longer receive nerve signals from the brain or the central nervous system. The intervertebral disks (also spelled discs) are made of cartilage and act as cushions between the vertebrae. Each disk has a tough, fibrous, outer layer surrounding a soft interior, which provides the cushioning. Lumbar disk herniation and lumbar disk prolapse occur when the disk herniates (ruptures or breaks) and some of this soft inner disk material pushes outward against the spinal cord to one degree or another. Disk herniation and prolapse are often erroneously referred to as a "slipped disk. Overeating, overdrinking, eating the wrong kinds of food, and constipation can also be involved. Chronic conditions causing back pain include arthritis, bone disease, or abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). Injecting the nicotine equivalent of one cigarette decidedly reduced the measured blood flow in the vertebral body. It is also thought that using tobacco interferes with the elasticity of connective tissue. Sometimes a serious case of constipation will cause an ache in the back, from impacted stools or pressure from gas. There are lots of experts out there: Chiropractors adjust the back by pushing and thrusting. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research issued a report, that chiropractors generally provided the most effective treatments for acute back pain. They cost far less, do the job quicker, and do not give medicinal drugs (most of which are usually poisonous). The British Medical Journal reported that chiropractic treatments proved more successful than hospital treatments in nearly every way. X rays are generally considered a routine part of back pain diagnosis; yet only a few back conditions show up on x rays! If the pain is caused by muscle strain or a herniated disk, an x ray will not reveal anything because muscles, disks, and ligaments are all soft tissues. These are medical doctors who also do back surgery, they are very likely to recommend it and that is something you want to avoid, if at all possible. Osteopaths can prescribe drugs and do surgery also, but they are less likely to do so. They have a good record of helping to solve serious back problems (such as disk problems) without resorting to surgery (which they are not licensed to do). Preventive measures that will help you, either before or after experiencing back problems: Be very careful when lifting something. Take several deep breaths, to increase muscle strength and then slowly lift with the legs, not the back, and hold the object close to your body. Do not lift from a bending forward position (closing windows, lifting things from deep in the car trunk). When the muscles are chilled or you are exhausted, it is easier to injure joints because the muscles are not able to do the work needed. Exercises, to build the muscles are very important, if you would avoid back trouble. This is due to the fact that the trunk, being heavier, sinks farther into the bed, causing the back to arch. Women should wear low-heeled shoes if they want to protect their pelvic organs and spine. Keep your pelvis flat on the floor and push up with your hands, arching your back as you lift your shoulders off the floor. Raise your head and shoulders off the floor as high as you can while keeping your lower back on the floor. Not only are they expensive, but frequently do not solve your movement and pain problems. And there is always the possibility that the operation will only result in greater pain, more serious damage, and even less mobility. The primary cause is that one set of the spinal muscles (right side or left side) is stronger than the other. These changes are the result of degeneration of muscles on one side; and, in some instances, they may be the early stage of muscular dystrophy. Cling to Jesus and, in spite of the disappointments of earth, you will have peace of heart. Hot Leg Bath with Fomentation to the spine; prolonged Neutral Bath, 1-4 hours daily.
But keep in mind that you must also be including proper minerals in your diet cheap 50 mg asendin otc, including some kelp or dulse cheap asendin 50 mg fast delivery, to replace the minerals lost by drinking distilled water discount asendin 50mg visa. Estrogen therapy initially increases bone formation, but eventually leads to decreased bone mass and lack of response to the parathyroid hormone. Taking estrogen also increases the risk of breast cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction (heart attack). If you take the thyroid hormone or an anticoagulant drug, increase the amount of calcium you take by 25- 50%. Continue until you have a 12- point set of tape lines, radiating from the center where the break occurred. A skin rash may develop, but it will be far less a problem than caring for the break. Occurring most frequently on the heel, the bone sticks out and occasionally strikes against something, causing pain. Bone spurs can cause the formation of tiny, painful, tumors at the end of some of the nerves in that area. But they are also common in those who have tendonitis, neuritis, arthritis, or alkalosis. Cling to God and obey His Written Word, and you will have the help that He sees is best for you. Unfortunately, symptoms are frequently not very obvious until the bones are quite weak. Bone formation is slowed; bone reabsorption increases, causing this loss of bone mass. But younger women should be watchful; research indicates that osteoporosis often begins early in life rather than just after menopause. Osteoporosis can also result in loose teeth which fall out, because the jawbone has weakened. There are two types of this disease: Osteoporosis, Type I, is thought to be caused by hormonal changes, especially a loss of estrogen. Also see osteomalacia under "Rickets," which is sometimes misdiagnosed as osteoporosis. There may be delayed walking, tetany, bony beads along the ribs, and decaying teeth. In adults, in addition to the above symptoms, aching joints and generalized weakness may also occur. It can result either from not obtaining enough vitamin D in the food or from not getting enough sunlight. When sunlight strikes the skin, oils there are irradiated, reabsorbed into the blood stream and carried to the liver, where it is stored and sent throughout the body to strengthen the bones. The adult form, osteomalacia, generally occurs during pregnancy or breast-feeding. But it may also be caused by a kidney disease or defect, calcium deficiency, a lack of vitamin D, or inability to utilize it. It can also occur in those who do not obtain enough sunshine or whose bodies are so low in fat that they cannot produce the bile needed to absorb the vitamin D in the food. A deficiency of vitamin C can make the bones less able to retain bone-building minerals. But, whatever your lot in life, determine that you will do all you can to help and encourage all with whom you come in contact. The most common forms are osteoarthritis (this article), rheumatoid arthritis (which see), gout (which see), and ankylosing spondylitis (which see). Each joint has cartilage covering over the end of the bone and is bathed continually in synovial fluid, in a capsule. Among other places, it is found on the ends of the long bones, and provides a smooth surface for the bones in the joints to slide against. As a result of years of wear and improper diet, this cartilage becomes pitted, thin, and may even disappear. Older people experience this most often, and it generally occurs in the weight-bearing joints (hips and knees). The connecting ligaments and muscles, which hold the joint together, become weaker. For information on rheumatoid arthritis, bursitis, and gout, see their respective articles. Here is a brief comparative overview: In osteoarthritis, the cartilage at the end of bones wears down and produces rough, hard, edges of bone which cause trouble. In rheumatoid arthritis (which see), the cartilage at the end of bones is destroyed, and is replaced with scar tissue. Gout (which see) produces extreme pain, usually starting in a big toe (or other smaller toe or finger joint). Infectious arthritis is the result of viral, bacterial, or fungal infection within a joint (most frequently bacteria or fungi, especially from candida [which see]). There are body aches, chills, and fever, along with throbbing pain in the affected joint. Meat is especially bad; it has a ratio of 1:12 (organ meats, such as liver and kidney) is 1:44. Eventually this hodgepodge of acids collects in the joints, to such a degree that the bone is eaten away, the bursa becomes inflamed, etc. Histidine helps remove metals, and many arthritics have high levels of copper and iron in their bodies. The alkaline action of raw juices and vegetable broth dissolves the accumulation of deposits around the joints and in other tissues. Slice a potato, with the skin on, cut it into thin slices and place in a large glass. This helps reduce or eliminate swelling and inflammation in the soft tissues and the joints affected by rheumatoid arthritis. It can be applied to the skin above the affected area to relieve pain, reduce swelling, and promote healing. In one research study, 85% of arthritics were benefited when they stopped using those foods. Practice bending all your joints (not merely the affected ones) in different positions, 5-10 times twice a day. Apply it to the affected area, and cover with a piece of plastic which is larger than the cloth. Worry, anger, and similar emotions weakens your body and helps induce arthritic problems. In one study, half the women with unexplained arthritis were found to have chlamydia. He will not fail you, even though you may not understand all the workings of providence.
Metastasis is a complex proc ess that includes local infiltration of tumor cells into the adjacent tissue order asendin 50mg with visa, transendothelial migration of cancer cells into vessels known as intravasation asendin 50 mg low price, survival in the circulatory sys tem cheap 50mg asendin free shipping, extravasation and subsequent proliferation in competent organs leading to colonization [36-38]. Initially, tumor cell aggregates detachment from the primary tumor, next the cells actively infiltrate the surrounding stroma and enter into the circulatory system, traveling to distinct sites to establish the secondary tumor growth. In the bloodstream, a very small number of tumor cells survive to reach the target organ, indicating that metastasis formation must be regarded as a very ineffective event. Millions of carcinoma cells enter into the circu latory system, but the majority of them die during transportation, and only 1-5% of viable cells are successful in formation of secondary deposits in distinct sites [37-40]. Metastasis is facilitated by cell-cell interactions between tumor cells and the endothelium in distant tissues and determines the spread. Metastatic cells must act with the endothelium in three different stages of tumor progression: initially during the formation of blood vessels that enable tumor growth (vascularization), during the migration process that allows the pas sage from tissue into the bloodstream (intravasation), and finally during the process allow ing extravasation into the target tissue [41-43]. Metastatic cancer cells require properties that allow them not only to adapt to a foreign microenvironment but also to subvert it in a way that is conducive to their continued proliferation and survival [36-38]. Cellular interactions in the inflammatory reaction and spread tumor In the early stages of inflammation, neutrophils are cells that migrate to the site of inflam mation under the influence of growth factors, cytokines and chemokines, which are pro duced by macrophages and mast cells residing in the tissue . The process of cell extravasation from the bloodstream can be divided into four stages: 1. The installation of tumor cells in blood vessels 192 Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Diseases - A Role for Antioxidants of the organ target to invade, is related to phenotypic changes in the endothelium allowing vascular extravasation of blood circulation of leukocytes in the inflammatory reaction and, as hypothesized current of tumor cells with metastatic capacity. The phenomenon of extravasa tion in response to a tumor cell interaction cell endothelial or not allowing the passage of cells whether there are appropriate conditions for the invasion with varied morphology [53-55]. Within the process of inflammation, a phenomenon is well-studied cell migration, which is the entrance of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and the vascular system. In recent years, it has been demonstrated that metastatic dissemination can be influenced by inflam matory-reparative processes . The interaction between these cell populations has been seen as part of a complex inflammatory microenvironment tumor-associated. Tumor cells are also capable of produce cytokines and che mokines that facilitate evasion of the system immune and help to establishment and devel opment of metastasis (Fig. The tumor microenvironment and its role in promoting tumor growth Cells grow within defined environmental sites and are subject to microenvironmental con trol. During tumor de velopment and progression, malignant cells escape the local tissue control and escape death. Diverse chemoattractant factors promote the recruitment and infiltration of these cells to the tumor microenvironment where they suppress the antitumor immunity or promote tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. In recent years, it has been found that tumor cells secrete soluble factors, which modify the endothelial constitutive phenotype, and that exposure to these factors increase to a greater or less extent the capacity to adhere endothelial human tumor cells. It has been recognized that these soluble factors released by tumor cells or non-tumor cells surrounding the tumor play an important role in tumor progression . These effects are considered essential in the process of adhe sion and extravasation during the inflammatory reaction. Moreover, we have analyzed the biochemical composition of the soluble factors derived from tumor cells. The activity of this cytokine in the soluble factors tumor could be further enhanced by the presence of other co-factors secreted by cells [72-73]. Something similar is observed using the same experimental treatment of melanoma with a decrease in angiogenesis . The reported findings strengthen the idea that soluble factors of tumor microenvironment may be relevant in the final stages of the metastatic spread and that these effects may be mediated by cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors present in the soluble factors secret ed by tumor cell lines. These elements found in high concentrations are known to be capable of inducing the activated phenotype of endothelial cells to a variety of physiological and pathological cellular responses. If macrophages and remain on the endothelium may allow the tissue damage continues chronic inflammation predisposes to malignancy [56,80]. The generation of this species chemical types, is normal in a normal cells; however, when these start to produce in excess and the antioxidant system is deficient, oxidative stress oc curs. Reactive oxygen species Reactive oxygen species are produced in normal condition them in a living cell during cellu lar respiration, energy production and various events of growth and cell death, these are de grade by the defensive systems. During cellular respiration O is reduced by four2 electrons to the transport of H for generating two2 molecules of water through an oxidative enzyme which results is the formation of superoxide anion (electron), hydrogen peroxide (two electron ) and hydroxyl ions (three electrons). These to hydrolyze the water and generate hydroxyl ions and hydrogen Inflammation and immune response. Metabolism of drugs Most chemicals do not show biological activity in its native form these have to become toxic reactive metabolites to act on their target molecules. Free radical and carcinogenesis Free radicals are atoms or groups of atoms that in their atomic structure present one or more unpaired electrons in the outer orbit. These free radicals steal electrons from other molecules in effort to heal themselves, ultimately creating new free radicals in the process by stealing electrons. Free radicals are formed from a number of causes such as cigarette smoke, pollu tion, exposure to sunlight all cause the formation of free radicals. In some diseases, such as Bloom syndrome develops lymphomas, leukemias and carcinomas, in anemia are implicated the production of these and alterations of antioxidant defense mechanisms at the systemic level [82-83]. Some epidemiological information indicates that tumor incidence is lower in populations where the diet is rich in antioxidants like fruits and vegetables . Tumor cells have a high activity of free radical formation in contrast to healthy cells. The progression of cancer, primarily because of the damage they cause in to the genetic material of a normal cell. Antioxidants search for these free radicals and lend them an, this stabilizes the molecule, thus preventing damage to other cells. Antioxidants also turn free radicals into waste by products, and they eventually are eliminated from the body. The inability of our body to neutralize free radicals we are exposed daily forces us to rely on foods with antioxidant properties capable of neu tralizing them . Flavonoids Flavonoids are found in numerous plants and vegetables, with a wide distribution through the plant kingdom. This class compounds numbers more than 4000 members and can be divided into five subcategories: flavones, monomeric flavanols, flavanones, flavonols and anthocyanidines. Are natural compounds chemically derivate from bezo-y-pirone (phenyl chromone) or flavone. It has been reported that they exert multiple biological effects due to their antioxidant and free radical-scavenging abilities . These diets are based on enzymes and antioxidant substances in certain foods that are rich in components that collect above . The mechanisms are diverse and range from inhibition to an active reaction of the immune system in general.
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