By J. Thorald. Pacific Union College. 2019.
Individuals with the same disease often react quite differently to the same medicine or behavioral intervention buy eulexin 250mg mastercard. Accordingly buy genuine eulexin, general health care has moved toward “personalized medicine buy cheapest eulexin,” an individualized treatment regimen derived from specifc information about the individual’s genetics and stage of illness, as well as lifestyle, language, culture, and personal preferences. Personalized care is not common in the substance use disorder feld because many prevention, treatment, and recovery regimens were created as standardized “programs” rather than individualized protocols. The third caveat to the statement on general research fndings is that even if research has shown that certain medications, therapies, or recovery support services are likely to be effective, this does not mean that they will be adequate, especially for groups with specifc needs. The Organization of the Report This Report is divided into Chapters, highlighting the key issues and most important research fndings in those topics. The fnal chapter concludes with recommendations for key stakeholders, including implications for practice and policy. This Chapter 1 - Introduction and Overview describes the overall rationale for the Report, defnes key terms used throughout the Report, introduces the major issues covered in the topical chapters, and describes the organization, format, and the scientifc standards that dictated content and emphasis within the Report. Chapter 2 - The Neurobiology of Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction reviews brain research on the neurobiological processes that turn casual substance use into a compulsive disorder. Chapter 3 - Prevention Program and Policies reviews the scientifc evidence on preventing substance misuse, substance use-related problems, and substance use disorders. Chapter 4 - Early Intervention, Treatment, and Management of Substance Use Disorders describes the goals, settings, and stages of treatment, and reviews the effectiveness of the major components of early intervention and treatment approaches, including behavioral therapies, medications, and social services. Chapter 6 - Health Care Systems and Substance Use Disorders reviews ongoing changes in organization, delivery, and fnancing of care for substance use disorders in both specialty treatment programs and in mainstream health care settings. Chapter 7 - Vision for the Future: A Public Health Approach presents a realistic vision for a comprehensive, effective, and humane public health approach to addressing substance misuse and substance use disorders in our country, including actionable recommendations for parents, families, communities, health care organizations, educators, researchers, and policymakers. Appendix A - Review Process for Prevention Programs details the review process for the prevention programs included in Chapter 3 and the evidence on these programs; Appendix B - Evidence-Based Prevention Programs and Policies provides detail on scientifc evidence grounding the programs and policies discussed in Chapter 3; Appendix C - Resource Guide provides resources specifc to those seeking information on preventing and treating substance misuse or substance use disorders; and Appendix D - Important Facts about Alcohol and Drugs contains facts about alcohol and specifc drugs, including descriptions, uses and possible health effects, treatment options, and statistics as of 2015. The prescription opioid and heroin crisis: A public health approach to an epidemic of addiction. Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control: National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non- Hispanic Americans in the 21st century. The effect of changes in selected age-specific causes of death on non-Hispanic white life expectancy between 2000 and 2014. National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of diabetes and its burden in the United States, 2014. Behavioral health trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Ofce on Smoking and Health. Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General. Department of Health and Human Services, Ofce of the Surgeon General, & National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention. Alcohol consumption and site-specifc cancer risk: A comprehensive dose–response meta- analysis. Global burden of disease and injury and economic cost attributable to alcohol use and alcohol-use disorders. Extent of illicit drug use and dependence, and their contribution to the global burden of disease. Estimated number of arrests: United States, 2012 Crime in the United States 2012: Uniform crime reports. Results of the 2013–2014 National Roadside Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use by drivers. The cost of crime to society: New crime- specifc estimates for policy and program evaluation. Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence, stalking, and intimate partner violence victimization—National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, United States, 2011. Practical implications of current domestic violence research: For law enforcement, prosecutors and judges. Intimate partner violence and specifc substance use disorders: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Beyond correlates: A review of risk and protective factors for adolescent dating violence perpetration. Intimate partner physical abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: A meta-analytic review. Longitudinal associations between teen dating violence victimization and adverse health outcomes. Impact of adolescent alcohol and drug use on neuropsychological functioning in young adulthood: 10- year outcomes. Engaging the unmotivated in treatment for alcohol problems: A comparison of three strategies for intervention through family members. The use of confrontation in addiction treatment: History, science and time for change. Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness: The chronic care model, Part 2. Survey: Ten percent of American adults report being in recovery from substance abuse or addiction. Slaying the dragon: The history of addiction treatment and recovery in America (2nd Ed. A steep increase in domestic fatal medication errors with use of alcohol and/or street drugs. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: What the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence. Contemporary addiction treatment: A review of systems problems for adults and adolescents. Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, H. Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2015: Volume I, secondary school students. Assessing the effects of medical marijuana laws on marijuana use: The devil is in the details. Acute cannabis consumption and motor vehicle collision risk: Systematic review of observational studies and meta-analysis. Smoking and health: Report of the advisory committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. The health consequences of using smokeless tobacco: A report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General. How tobacco smoke causes disease: The biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease: A report of the Surgeon General. This knowledge has opened the door to new ways of thinking about prevention and treatment of substance use disorders.
Population pharmacokinetics of intramuscular artesunate in African children with severe malaria: implications for a practical dosing regimen cheap 250 mg eulexin mastercard. Comparative 5 pharmacokinetics of intramuscular artesunate and artemether in patients with severe falciparum malaria order eulexin uk. The pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular artesunate and rectal dihydroartemisinin in uncomplicated falciparum malaria discount eulexin 250 mg free shipping. Effects of alpha-thalassemia on pharmacokinetics of the antimalarial agent artesunate. Disposition of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin after administration of artesunate suppositories in children from Papua New Guinea with uncomplicated malaria. Bioavailability and preliminary clinical effcacy of intrarectal artesunate in Ghanaian children with moderate malaria. Pharmacokinetic profles of artesunate following multiple intravenous doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg in healthy volunteers: phase 1b study. Intramuscular bioavailability and clinical effcacy of artesunate in Gabonese children with severe malaria. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous artesunate in adults with severe falciparum malaria. Pengsaa K, Sirivichayakul C, Na-Bangchang K, Thaiarporn I, Chaivisuth A, Wongsuwan A, et al. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin following intra-rectal dosing of artesunate in malaria patients. Sirivichayakul C, Sabchareon A, Pengsaa K, Thaiarporn I, Chaivisuth A, Na-Bangchang K, et al. Comparative study of the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics of two rectal artesunate/oral mefoquine combination regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated childhood falciparum malaria. Chanthap L, Tsuyuoka R, Na-Bangchang K, Nivanna N, Suksom D, Sovannarith T, et al. Investigation of bioavailability, pharmacokinetics and safety of new pediatric formulations of artesunate and mefoquine. Assessment of the effect of mefoquine on artesunate pharmacokinetics in healthy male volunteers. Krudsood S, Looareesuwan S, Tangpukdee N, Wilairatana P, Phumratanaprapin W, Leowattana W, et al. Pharmacokinetics of two paediatric artesunate mefoquine drug formulations in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Gabon. Population parmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of artemisinin and mefoquine enantiomers in patients with falciparum malaria. Pharmacokinetics of artemether–lumefantrine and artesunate– amodiaquine in children in Kampala, Uganda. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and non-pregnant women with malaria. Krudsood S, Wilairatana P, Vannaphan S, Treeprasertsuk S, Silachamroon U, A Phomrattanaprapin W, et al. Clinical experience with intravenous quinine, 5 intramuscular artemether and intravenous artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria in Thailand. Artesunate versus quinine for treatment of severe falciparum malaria: a randomised trial. Effcacy of rectal artesunate compared with parenteral quinine in initial treatment of moderately severe malaria in African children and adults: a randomised study. H3C Dose-dependent risk of neutropenia after 7-day courses of artesunate monotherapy in Cambodian patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. H3C H3C H3C F F Neuropathological assessment of artemether-treated severe malaria. The apparent clearance (Cl/f) of both atovaquone and proguanil is related to body weight (14). While most of the pharmacokinetics of proguanil and cycloguanil is comparable in adults and children, the elimination half-life of atovaquone is shorter in children (9, 14). The plasma concentrations of atovaquone and proguanil in women in the second A and third trimesters of pregnancy are approximately half those of non-pregnant 5 adults (with and without acute malaria) as a result of a greater Vd and increased oral clearance. Pharmacokinetic parameters of atovaquone, proguanil and cycloguanil in studies of currently recommended doses for malaria prophylaxis or treatment (range of mean or median values reported). Parameter Atovaquone Proguanil Cycloguanil Cmax (ng/mL) 634–13 270 560–751 37–67 Tmax (h) 5. The side-effects of atovaquone– proguanil are similar in children and adults (9, 14). The most common adverse effects reported are headache, cough and gastrointestinal disturbances (such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea). Other adverse events occur rarely, such as dizziness and oral ulceration, and, very rarely, blood disorders including neutropenia and anaemia and skin reactions such as photosensitivity rash and erythema multiforme. Allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, angioedema, Stevens–Johnson syndrome and vasculitis may rarely occur. Pancytopenia in patients with severe renal impairment treated with proguanil has been reported, probably because of drug accumulation (15). Contraindications Atovaquone–proguanil is contraindicated in patients with known serious hypersensitivity reactions to atovaquone or proguanil. It is also contraindicated as malaria prophylaxis in patients with severe renal impairment because of the high risk for pancytopenia. The main concern is the approximate twofold reduction in plasma concentrations of both atovaquone and proguanil (7, 8), which could leave pregnant women more susceptible to malaria infection or at risk for treatment failure. Additional strategies are strongly advised for pregnant women taking atovaquone– proguanil for malaria prevention. Prolonged protection provided by a single dose of atovaquone–proguanil for the chemoprophylaxis of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a human challenge model. The pharmacokinetics of atovaquone and proguanil in pregnant women with acute falciparum malaria. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atovaquone and proguanil for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in third- trimester pregnant women. Sabchareon A, Attanath P, Phanuaksook P, Chanthavanich P, Poonpanich Y, Mookmanee D, et al. Effcacy and pharmacokinetics of atovaquone and proguanil in children with multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Lower atovaquone/proguanil concentrations in patients taking efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir. Chloroquine is extensively distributed in body tissues and fuids, including the placenta and breast milk.
The antagonism to acetylcholine is inhibited and neuromuscular block is reversed by acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as neostigmine eulexin 250 mg mastercard, edrophonium eulexin 250mg overnight delivery, and pyridostigmine buy genuine eulexin on line. Norcuron is about 1/3 more potent than pancuronium; the duration of neuromuscular blockade produced by Norcuron is shorter than that of pancuronium at initially equipotent doses. The time to onset of paralysis decreases and the duration of maximum effect increases with increasing Norcuron doses. The use of a peripheral nerve stimulator is recommended in assessing the degree of muscular relaxation with all neuromuscular blocking drugs. Under balanced anesthesia, the time to recovery to 25% of control (clinical duration) is approximately 25 to 40 minutes after injection and recovery is usually 95% complete approximately 45‐ 65 minutes after injection of intubating dose. The neuromuscular blocking action of Norcuron is slightly enhanced in the presence of potent inhalation anesthetics. If Norcuron is first administered more than 5 minutes after the start of the inhalation of enflurane, isoflurane, or halothane, or when steady state has been achieved, the intubating dose of Norcuron may be decreased by approximately 15%. Repeated administration of maintenance doses of Norcuron has little or no cumulative effect on the duration of neuromuscular blockade. Therefore, repeat doses can be administered at relatively regular intervals with predictable results. Halothane anesthesia increases the clinical duration of the maintenance dose only slightly. The recovery index (time from 25% to 75% recovery) is approximately 15‐25 minutes under balanced or halothane anesthesia. When recovery from Norcuron neuromuscular blocking effect begins, it proceeds more rapidly than recovery from pancuronium. Once spontaneous recovery has started, the neuromuscular block produced by Norcuron is readily reversed with various anticholinesterase agents, e. Unlike other nondepolarizing skeletal muscle relaxants, Norcuron has no clinically significant effects on hemodynamic parameters. Norcuron will not counteract those hemodynamic changes or known side effects produced by or associated with anesthetic agents, other drugs or various other factors known to alter hemodynamics. Studies involving routine hemodynamic monitoring in good risk surgical patients reveal that the administration of Norcuron in doses up to three times that needed to produce clinical relaxation (0. The heart rate, under similar monitoring, remained unchanged in some studies and was lowered by a mean of up to 8% in other studies. Systemic vascular resistance was lowered slightly and cardiac output was increased insignificantly. Malignant Hyperthermia: Many drugs used in anesthetic practice are suspected of being capable of triggering a potentially fatal hypermetabolism of skeletal muscle known as malignant hyperthermia. There are insufficient data derived from screening in susceptible animals (swine) to establish whether or not Norcuron is capable of triggering malignant hyperthermia. This may vary from skeletal muscle weakness to profound and prolonged skeletal muscle paralysis resulting in respiration insufficiency or apnea. Inadequate reversal of the neuromuscular blockade is possible with Norcuron as with all curariform drugs. These adverse reactions are managed by manual or mechanical ventilation until recovery is judged adequate. Little or no increase in intensity of blockade or duration of action with Norcuron is noted from the use of thiobarbiturates, narcotic analgesics, nitrous oxide, or droperidol. Overdosage: Prolonged to profound extensions of paralysis and/or muscle weakness as well as muscle atrophy have been reported after long‐term use to support mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. The administration of Norcuron has been associated with rare instances of hypersensitivity reactions (bronchospasm, hypotension and/or tachycardia, sometimes associated with acute urticaria or erythema). The possibility of iatrogenic overdosage can be minimized by carefully monitoring muscle twitch response to peripheral nerve stimulation. Residual neuromuscular blockade beyond the time period needed may occur with Norcuron as with other neuromuscular blockers. This may be manifested by skeletal muscle weakness, decreased respiratory reserve, low tidal volume, or apnea. A peripheral nerve stimulator may be used to assess the degree of residual neuromuscular blockade from other causes of decreased respiratory reserve. Respiratory depression may be due either wholly or in part to other drugs used during the conduct of general anesthesia such as narcotics, thiobarbiturates and other central nervous system depressants. Under such circumstances the primary treatment is maintenance of a patent airway and manual or mechanical ventilation until complete recovery of normal respiration is assured. Regonol (pyridostigmine bromide) injection, neostigmine, or edrophonium, in conjunction with atropine or glycopyrrolate will usually antagonize the skeletal muscle relaxant action of Norcuron. Satisfactory reversal can be judged by adequacy of skeletal muscle tone and by adequacy of respiration. A peripheral nerve stimulator may also be used to monitor restoration of twitch height. Failure of prompt reversal (within 30 minutes) may occur in the presence of extreme debilitation, carcinomatosis, and with concomitant use of certain broad spectrum antibiotics, or anesthetic agents and other drugs which enhance neuromuscular blockade or cause respiratory depression of their own. Under such circumstances the management is the same as that of prolonged neuromuscular blockade. Ventilation must be supported by artificial means until the patient has resumed control of his respiration. Prior to the use of reversal agents, reference should be made to the specific package insert of the reversal agent. Dosage and Administration: Norcuron (vecuronium bromide) for injection is for intravenous use only. To obtain maximum clinical benefits of Norcuron and to minimize the possibility of overdosage, the monitoring of muscle twitch response to peripheral nerve stimulation is advised. This dose can be expected to produce good or excellent non‐emergency intubation conditions in 2. Under balanced anesthesia, clinically required neuromuscular blockade lasts approximately 25‐30 minutes, with recovery to 25% of control achieved approximately 25 to 40 minutes after injection and recovery to 95% of control achieved approximately 45‐65 minutes after injection. In the presence of potent inhalation anesthetics, the neuromuscular blocking effect of Norcuron is enhanced. If Norcuron is first administered more than 5 minutes after the start of inhalation agent or when steady‐state has been achieved, the initial Norcuron dose may be reduced by approximately 15%, i. However, clinical criteria should be used to determine the need for maintenance doses. Since Norcuron lacks clinically important cumulative effects, subsequent maintenance doses, if required, may be administered at relatively regular intervals for each patient, ranging approximately from 12 to 15 minutes under balanced anesthesia, slightly longer under inhalation agents. Use By Continuous Infusion: After an intubating dose of 80‐100 mcgm/kg, a continuous infusion of 1 mcgm/kg/min can be initiated approximately 20‐40 min later. Infusion of Norcuron should be initiated only after early evidence of spontaneous recovery from the bolus dose. Long‐ term intravenous infusion to support mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit has not been studied sufficiently to support dosage recommendations. An initial rate of 1 mcgm/kg/min is recommended, with the rate of the infusion adjusted thereafter to maintain a 90% suppression of twitch response. Inhalation anesthetics, particularly enflurane and isoflurane may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of nondepolarizing muscle relaxants.
Ongoing efforts to reform health care and criminal justice systems are creating new opportunities to increase access to prevention and treatment services purchase eulexin with visa. Health care reform and parity laws are providing signifcant opportunities and incentives to address substance misuse and related disorders more effectively in diverse health care settings discount eulexin 250mg with amex. These changes represent new opportunities to create policies and practices that are more evidence-informed to address health and social problems related to substance misuse purchase eulexin american express. The moral obligation to address substance misuse and substance use disorders effectively for all Americans also aligns with a strong economic imperative. Substance misuse and substance use disorders are estimated to cost society $442 billion each year in health care costs, lost productivity, and criminal justice costs. More than 10 million full-time workers in our nation have a substance use disorder—a leading cause of disability —and3 studies have demonstrated that prevention and treatment programs for employees with substance use disorders are cost effective in improving worker productivity. It aims to understand and address and Related Consequences” in Chapter 1 - Introduction and Overview. The following fve general messages described within the Report have important implications for policy and practice. These are followed by specifc evidence-based suggestions for the roles individuals, families, organizations, and communities can play in more effectively addressing this major health issue. Both substance misuse and substance use disorders harm the health and well-being of individuals and communities. Substance misuse is the use of alcohol or illicit or prescription drugs in a manner that may cause harm to users or to those around them. Harms can include overdoses, interpersonal violence, motor vehicle crashes, as well as injuries, homicides, and suicides—the leading causes of death in adolescents and young adults (aged 12 to 25). These disorders involve9 See Chapter 2 - The Neurobiology of impaired control over substance use that results from Substance Use, Misuse, and Addiction. Substance use disorders 1 occur along a continuum from mild to severe; severe substance use disorders are also called addictions. Because substances have particularly powerful effects on the developing adolescent brain, young adults who misuse substances are at increased risk of developing a substance use disorder at some point in their lives. Implications for Policy and Practice Expanding access to effective, evidence-based treatments for those with addiction and also less severe substance use disorders is critical, but broader prevention programs and policies are also essential to reduce substance misuse and the pervasive health and social problems caused by it. Although they cannot address the chronic, severe impairments common among individuals with substance use disorders, education, regular monitoring, and even modest legal sanctions may signifcantly reduce substance misuse in the wider population. Many policies at the federal, state, local, and tribal levels that aim to reduce the harms associated with substance use have proven very effective in preventing and reducing alcohol misuse (e. These programs also provide the opportunity to engage people who inject drugs in treatment. These types of effective prevention policies can and should be adapted and extended to reduce the injuries, disabilities, and deaths caused by substance misuse. Highly effective community-based prevention programs and policies exist and should be widely implemented. This Report describes the signifcant advances in prevention science over the past two decades, including the identifcation of major risk and protective factors and the development of more than four dozen research-tested prevention interventions that can be delivered in households, schools, clinical settings, and community centers. First, science has shown that adolescence and young adulthood are major “at risk” periods for substance misuse and related harms. Second, most of the major genetic, social, and environmental risk factors that predict substance misuse also predict many other serious adverse outcomes and risks. Third, several community-delivered prevention programs and policies have been shown to signifcantly reduce rates of substance-use initiation and misuse-related harms. Prevention programs and interventions can have a strong impact and be cost-effective, but only if evidence-based components are used and if those components are delivered in a coordinated and consistent fashion throughout the at-risk period. Parents, schools, health care systems, faith communities, and social service organizations should be involved in delivering comprehensive, evidence-based community prevention programs that are sustained over time. Additionally, research has demonstrated that policies and environmental strategies are highly effective in reducing alcohol-related problems by focusing on the social, political, and economic contexts in which these problems occur. These evidence-based policies include regulating alcohol outlet density, restricting hours and days of sale, and policies to increase the price of alcohol at the federal, state, or local level. Implications for Policy and Practice To be effective, prevention programs and policies should be designed to address the common risk and protective factors that infuence the most common health threats affecting young people. They should be tested through research and should be delivered continuously throughout the entire at-risk period by those who have been properly trained and supervised to use them. Federal and state funding incentives could increase the number of properly organized community coalitions using effective prevention practices that adhere to commonly defned standards. The research reviewed in this Report suggests that such coordinated efforts could signifcantly improve the impact of existing prevention funding, programs, and policies, enhancing quality of life for American families and communities. Full integration of the continuum of services for substance use disorders with the rest of health care could signifcantly improve the quality, effectiveness, and safety of all health care. Individuals with substance use disorders at all levels of severity can beneft from treatment, and research shows that integrating substance use disorder treatment into mainstream health care can improve the quality of treatment services. Historically, however, only individuals with the most severe substance use disorders have received treatment, and only in independent “addiction treatment programs” that were originally designed in the early 1960s to treat addictions as personality or character disorders. Similarly, most general health care organizations—even teaching hospitals—do not provide screening, diagnosis, or treatment for substance use disorders. This separation of substance use disorder treatment from the rest of health care has contributed to the lack of understanding of the medical nature of these conditions, lack of awareness among affected individuals that they have a signifcant health problem, and slow adoption of scientifcally supported medical treatments by addiction treatment providers. Additionally, mainstream health care has been inadequately prepared to address the prevalent substance misuse–related problems of patients in many clinical settings. This has contributed to incorrect diagnoses, inappropriate treatment plans, poor adherence to treatment plans by patients, and high rates of emergency department and hospital admissions. The goals of substance use disorder treatment are very similar to the treatment goals for other chronic illnesses: to eliminate or reduce the primary symptoms (substance use), improve general health and function, and increase the motivation and skills of patients and their families to manage threats of relapse. Even serious substance use disorders can be treated effectively, with recurrence rates equivalent to those of other chronic illnesses such as diabetes, asthma, or hypertension. With comprehensive continuing15 care, recovery is an achievable outcome: More than 25 million individuals with a previous substance use disorder are estimated to be in remission. However, most existing substance use disorder treatment programs lack the needed training, personnel, and infrastructure to provide treatment for co-occurring physical and mental illnesses. Similarly, most physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals working in general health care settings have not received training in screening, diagnosing, or addressing substance use disorders. Implications for Policy and Practice Policy changes, particularly at the state level, are needed to better integrate care for substance use disorders with the rest of health care. State licensing and fnancing policies should be designed to better incentivize programs that offer the full continuum of care (residential, outpatient, continuing care, and recovery supports); offer a full range of evidence-based behavioral treatments and medications; and maintain working afliations with general and mental health care professionals to integrate care. Within general health care, federal and state grants and development programs should make eligibility contingent on integrating care for mental and substance use disorders or provide incentives for organizations that support this type of integration. But integration of mental health and substance use disorder care into general health care will not be possible without a workforce that is competently cross-educated and trained in all these areas. Currently, only 8 percent of American medical schools offer a separate, required course on addiction medicine and 36 percent have an elective course; minimal or no professional education on substance use disorders is available for other health professionals. Similarly, associations of clinical professionals should continue to provide continuing education and training courses for those already in practice. Coordination and implementation of recent health reform and parity laws will help ensure increased access to services for people with substance use disorders.
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