By E. Grobock. Medaille College.
Children aren’t into ancient Eastern philosophy cheap alfuzosin 10mg with amex, religion order alfuzosin 10mg visa, and medi- failure until adults ﬁll them with it buy generic alfuzosin 10 mg line. Children shift cine, the mind/body idea was summarized by Hip- into the spiritual realm more easily than adults. If things such as spontaneous Q: Would you say your handle on life, with or remission happen they don’t understand, they say without cancer or other disease, is one of keeping it was either a miracle or a lab error. Q: What is the impact of your philosophy these Siegel: My basic sense is—the basic message is— days? I say happiness is a choice, not something medical schools, and on television, and I’ve given to you. But what a strug- Life for everyone is a labor pain and a prison sen- gle I had at ﬁrst telling professionals to see that tence: You can “give birth” to yourself and learn 144 Simonton, O. Siegel: Most of that is their projection of their prob- solar plexus The region behind the stomach and lem with money, guilt, shame, or blame. At times between the suprarenal glands (approximately the people will quote me on things I never wrote; they midtorso from the diaphragm to the upper created or saw their own perception, like an artist abdomen), also called the celiac plexus. It’s within nerve bundles, the celiac and superior mesenteric you to ﬁnd inspiration. You learn not to be angry ganglia, are housed in the solar plexus and pass with attackers. In Q: What happens when you feel critical of your- energy medicine disciplines such as Reiki, the solar self? Also, I have to remember that change does- titioner often places both palms on a client’s solar n’t mean I’ve done something wrong. Those who are ill can build sunlight has been shown to cause depression and in a better chance of recovery. Siegel: I mean you can learn to be in God’s coun- try where there are no schedules and no clocks. It’s sound therapy The use of music, the voice, and part of how to die laughing; people do die with a smile. They embrace a joy in other types of sound as a way to treat anxiety, having lived and contributed. I like to think of the stress, physical symptoms, and pain; to induce most frequently asked question on earth— relaxation; and to increase the level of mental, ”Where’s the bathroom? For example, quently asked question in heaven—”Why was I so music may help reduce stress and pain and serious back there? Carl An American radiation oncol- dures, and it has been shown to relax infants and ogist and author of Getting Well Again (with children, women in labor, and people with stroke Stephanie Matthews-Simonton and James or Parkinson’s disease. Tomatis developed a that stress is the greatest single factor causing low- sound therapy to help repattern a child’s auditory ered immune function and the recurrence of cancer. The French physician spontaneous healing 145 Guy Berard also developed a sound therapy, the relate to physical, emotional, genetic, and nutri- Berard Method, using music to improve impaired tional conditions. Rebalancing the frequency energy pat- supposed to train the auditory system to process terns supports the individual being tested in a way sound normally and thus foster normal speech, lan- that helps them heal themselves. By providing a Another sound therapy is toning, which requires an constant external input into the biological system individual to stand with eyes closed and a relaxed at a frequency where it is deﬁcient, it eventually jaw and repeat certain vowel sounds in order to rebalances as it learns to resonate at that frequency. All “The audio waveform is analyzed for frequencies matter, including herbs, pharmaceuticals, and even in stress which are then compared to our experi- food with its accompanying vitamins, minerals and mental frequency assignments of vitamins, minerals, other nutrients could be examined from a fre- amino acids, bones, muscles and all manner of sub- quency perspective that may explain their biologi- stances, including drugs and toxins. This is obvious if you consider that quencies in stress are identiﬁed, Bio-Resonance electrons are always moving and vibrating. All Therapy utilizes low-frequency waveforms generated healing interventions inﬂuence the body by some- with a small, “Walkman”-style tonebox and deliv- how altering its frequency resonance. Computer ered through headphones, sub-woofer or a vibration technology such as Bio-Resonance Therapy can transducer. Each tonebox can be programmed for up measure the specific frequency imbalances in much to 12 tracks, with up to 4 very accurate frequencies the same way as one would measure brain wave on each track. The voice is a holographic blueprint of the non-invasively delivered to the body, often resulting whole body. Research indi- subjective since it does not depend on the skill or cates that low-frequency waveforms seem to activate orientation of the practitioner. After the assess- vitamins, minerals, amino acids and other biologic ment, appropriate suggestions can be made and substances, and show promise at being able to detox- actions taken with respect to the identiﬁed ener- ify frequencies that correlate with dangerous sub- getically stressed issues. The voice is an accurate map or holograph spontaneous healing The abatement of symp- of the body energetics. Every individual has a toms or disappearance of disease without apparent unique voice energy print that may be charted with cause. When charted, the called spontaneous remission, to an act of God or a voice often reveals patterns of sound frequency remarkable change of attitude or events in a per- energy imbalance. In his article “Spontaneous Remission 146 Steiner, Rudolf and the Placebo Effect,” Stephen Barrett, M. He did not believe in dis- limiting, and even incurable conditions can have pensing drugs, but as a result of his doctrine, Still’s sufﬁcient day-to-day variation to enable quack future osteopaths incorporated the use of drugs, methods to gain large followings. Taking action vaccines, surgery, and other treatment modalities often produces temporary relief of symptoms (a thought to be appropriate for each case. Thus it is extremely important for consumers vaman, or vamankarm (therapeutic vomiting), an to understand the concepts of spontaneous remis- Ayurvedic method of emptying the stomach of sion and the placebo effect. Three Steiner, Rudolf The Austrian philosopher (1861– or four glasses of licorice and honey or calamus 1925) who developed the idea of science of the root tea or two glasses of salt water are to be taken, spirit, which he called anthroposophy. His experi- and afterward one rubs the tongue to induce vom- ence of the reality of the Christ was pivotal in his iting—and the release of emotions—until bile teachings and vision and soon took a central place appears in the vomitus. The stomach wash, a gentler treatment than powers that can be drawn from spiritual vision. In vamankarm, involves drinking salt water and tick- response to World War I (1914–18), Steiner claimed ling the back of the throat with a ﬁnger to induce that with insight into humankind’s nature, a new vomiting until the stomach is empty. His ideas added not recommended for children; elderly, frail, preg- to the body of knowledge in education, agriculture, nant, grieving, menstruating, or emaciated individ- therapy, and medicine. The book Anthroposophical uals; or those with anorexia, heart disease, cavities Medicine (Rochester, Vt. Some stress is considered necessary in order Sweat can also eliminate excessive salts that for biological mechanisms to function optimally. Eustress refers to good stress, and distress Sweat may also draw out lactic acid that causes refers to bad or painful stress. Finnish and German doctors cite studies indicating sweat baths help persons with high blood pressure subclinical symptoms Precursors of symptoms or and heart problems. The heat of a sweat bath and the often “shaking,” the act of shaking an individual in order rapid cooling afterward are said to condition the to hear any internal splashing sounds that indicate body against colds, disease, and infection. Recent the abnormal presence of ﬂuid, particularly in the tests in Finland validate the practice of splashing thoracic area. Succussion also refers to the homeo- water on superheated rocks as a way to produce pathic method of shaking remedy preparations.
The majority of studies involved violent sex offenders cheap 10mg alfuzosin with visa, and the results cannot accurately be generalized buy generic alfuzosin 10 mg line. Psychoanalytical Theory: The psychoanalytic approach deﬁnes a paraphiliac as one who has failed the normal developmental process toward heterosexual adjustment (Sadock & Sadock cheap alfuzosin 10 mg with amex, 2007). This occurs when the indi- vidual fails to resolve the Oedipal crisis and identiﬁes with the parent of the opposite gender. This creates in- tense anxiety, which leads the individual to seek sexual gratiﬁcation in ways that provide a “safe substitution” for the parent (Becker & Johnson, 2008). Sexual arousal from being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer (through fantasy, self-inﬂiction, or by a sexual partner). Sexual arousal by inﬂicting psychological or physical suffering on another individual (either consenting or nonconsenting). Sexual arousal from observing unsuspecting people either naked or engaged in sexual activity. Masturbation often accompanies the activities described when they are performed solitarily. Male Orgasmic Disorder (Retarded Ejaculation): With this disorder, the man is unable to ejaculate, even though he has a ﬁrm erection and has had more than adequate stimulation. The severity of the problem may range from only occasional problems ejaculating to a history of never having experienced an orgasm. Vaginismus: Vaginismus is characterized by an involun- tary constriction of the outer third of the vagina, which prevents penile insertion and intercourse. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders ● 205 Predisposing Factors to Sexual Dysfunctions 1. Sexual Desire Disorders: In men, these disorders have been linked to low levels of serum testosterone and to elevated levels of serum prolactin. Evidence also exists that suggests a relationship between serum testosterone and increased female libido. Various medications, such as antihypertensives, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxio- lytics, and anticonvulsants, as well as chronic use of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, have also been implicated in sexual desire disorders. Sexual Arousal Disorders: These may occur in response to decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. Medications such as antihistamines and cholinergic blockers may produce similar results. Erectile dysfunc- tions in men may be attributed to arteriosclerosis, dia- betes, temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, some medications (antihypertensives, antidepressants, tran- quilizers), spinal cord injury, pelvic surgery, and chronic use of alcohol. Orgasmic Disorders: In women these may be attributed to some medical conditions (hypothyroidism, diabetes, and depression) and certain medications (antihyperten- sives, antidepressants). Medical conditions that may in- terfere with male orgasm include genitourinary surgery (e. Various medications have also been implicated, including antihypertensives, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. Sexual Pain Disorders: In women these can be caused by disorders of the vaginal entrance, irritation or damage to the clitoris, vaginal or pelvic infections, endometrio- sis, tumors, or cysts. Painful intercourse in men may be attributed to penile infections, phimosis, urinary tract infections, or prostate problems. Sexual Desire Disorders: Phillips (2000) has identiﬁed a number of individual and relationship factors that may contribute to hypoactive sexual desire disorder. Individual causes include religious orthodoxy; sexual identity con- ﬂicts; past sexual abuse; ﬁnancial, family, or job problems; depression; and aging-related concerns (e. Among the relationship causes are interpersonal conﬂicts; current physical, verbal, or sexual abuse; extramarital affairs; and desire or practices differ- ent from partner. Sexual Arousal Disorders: In the female these may be attributed to doubts, fears, guilt, anxiety, shame, con- ﬂict, embarrassment, tension, disgust, resentment, grief, anger toward the partner, and puritanical or moralistic upbringing. A history of sexual abuse may also be an im- portant etiologic factor (Leiblum, 1999). The etiology of male erectile disorder may be related to chronic stress, anxiety, or depression. Early developmental factors that promote feelings of inadequacy and a sense of being un- loving or unlovable may also result in impotence. Orgasmic Disorders: A number of factors have been im- plicated in the etiology of female orgasm disorders. They include fear of becoming pregnant, hostility toward men, negative cultural conditioning, childhood exposure to rigid religious orthodoxy, and traumatic sexual experi- ences during childhood or adolescence. Orgasm disorders in men may be related to a rigid, puritanical background where sex was perceived as sinful and the genitals as dirty; or interpersonal difﬁculties, such as ambivalence about commitment, fear of pregnancy, or unexpressed hostility, may be implicated. Sexual Pain Disorders: Vaginismus may occur after hav- ing experienced painful intercourse for any organic rea- son, after which involuntary constriction of the vagina occurs in anticipation and fear of recurring pain. Other psychosocial factors that have been implicated in the etiology of vaginismus include negative childhood con- ditioning of sex as dirty, sinful, and shameful; early child- hood sexual trauma; homosexual orientation; traumatic experience with an early pelvic examination; pregnancy phobia; sexually transmitted disease phobia; or cancer phobia (Phillips, 2000; King, 2005; Leiblum, 1999; Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Failure to attain or maintain penile erection until comple- tion of sexual activity. Inability to achieve orgasm (in men, to ejaculate) following a period of sexual excitement judged adequate in intensity and duration to produce such a response. Ejaculation occurs with minimal sexual stimulation or before, on, or shortly after penetration and before the indi- vidual wishes it. Common Nursing Diagnoses and Interventions for Paraphilias and Sexual Dysfunctions (Interventions are applicable to various health-care settings, such as inpatient and partial hospitalization, community outpatient clinic, home health, and private practice. Client will identify stressors that may contribute to loss of sexual function within 1 week or 2. Client will discuss pathophysiology of disease process that contributes to sexual dysfunction within 1 week. Client will verbalize willingness to seek professional assis- tance from a sex therapist in order to learn alternative ways of achieving sexual satisfaction with partner by (time is indi- vidually determined). Long-term Goal Client will resume sexual activity at level satisfactory to self and partner by (time is individually determined). Assess client’s sexual history and previous level of satisfac- tion in sexual relationship. This establishes a database from which to work and provides a foundation for goal setting. Help client determine time dimension associated with the onset of the problem and discuss what was happening in his or her life situation at that time. Depression and fatigue decrease desire and enthusiasm for participation in sexual activity. Evaluation of drug and individual response is important to ascertain whether drug may be contributing to the problem. Encourage client to discuss disease process that may be con- tributing to sexual dysfunction. Ensure that client is aware that alternative methods of achieving sexual satisfaction exist and can be learned through sex counseling if he or she and partner desire to do so. Client may be unaware that satis- factory changes can be made in his or her sex life. Encourage client to ask questions regarding sexuality and sexual functioning that may be troubling him or her.
Effects of drug transporter polymorphisms on Time to conversion (months) drug disposition depend on the individual drug and the Figure 14 generic 10 mg alfuzosin with visa. Genetic variation in serotonin transporters influences the effects of antidepressants discount alfuzosin 10mg mastercard, such 0 cheap alfuzosin 10mg fast delivery. This explains approximately 40% of the variability in concentration corrected for variable daily dose). Warfarin resistance (requirement concentrations were measured one to two hours after oral hydralazine doses of 25–100mg in 24 slow and 11 fast for very high doses of warfarin) has been noted in a few pedi- acetylators. HbM, HbH), Mediterranean peoples, those of African or Indian descent and the oxidized (methaemoglobin) form is not readily converted in East Asia. Reduced enzyme activity results in methaemoglo- back into reduced, functional haemoglobin. Exposure to the binaemia and haemolysis when red cells are exposed to oxidiz- above substances causes methaemoglobinaemia in individuals ing agents (e. The causative agent is usually an nitrofurantoin, fluoroquinolones: ciprofloxacin inhalational anaesthetic (e. If acute severe haemolysis halothane-induced rigidity) being inherited as a Mendelian occurs, primaquine may have to be withdrawn and blood dominant. Hydrocortisone is given intra- ryanodine R1 receptor (Ry1R) responsible for controlling venously and the urine is alkalinized to reduce the likelihood intracellular calcium flux from the sarcolemma. Muscle from affected individuals is logical, psychiatric, cardiovascular and gastro-intestinal dis- abnormally sensitive to caffeine in vitro, responding with a turbances that are occasionally fatal) are accompanied by strong contraction to low concentrations. An extraordinarily wide array of drugs and cause contraction even in normal muscle at sufficiently can cause such exacerbations. Often a single dose of one drug of this type can precipitate an acute episode, but in some patients repeated This group of diseases includes acute intermittent porphyria, doses are necessary to provoke a reaction. Avery useful list of drugs that of these varieties, acute illness is precipitated by drugs are unsafe to use in patients with porphyrias is included in the because of inherited enzyme deficiencies in the pathway of British National Formulary. Once her bone marrow has recovered (with or without Haem haematopoietic growth factors), she could be restarted on Figure 14. Inter-ethnic individual (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic) variability in human drug responses. Drug therapy: pharmacogenomics – drug include: disposition, drug targets, and side effects. Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmaco- suppression); genetics: insights, challenges and future directions. Drug therapy: drug metabolism and variability among hydralazine and dapsone; patients in drug response. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; (e) pseudocholinesterase deficiency; this leads to 352: 2211–21. At least 600 such babies were born in England and plants influence the course of disease. There were notable excep- regarding the control of human medicines, which is based upon tions to this faith in medicine and some physicians had a short safety, quality and efficacy. Thalidomide was first marketed in West Germany in 1956 as a sedative/ hypnotic, as well as a treatment for morning sickness. The major medical journals are well refereed, although Late (confirmatory) supplements to many medical journals are less rigorously * Registration development reviewed for scientific value. Time from discovery to registration approximately Assessment of a new treatment by clinical impression is 10–13 years not adequate. Good Clinical Practice is an international ethical and guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and subsequent scientific quality standard for designing, conducting, record- amendments. For example, Whilst random screening and serendipity remain important does treatment A prolong survival in comparison with treat- in the discovery of new drugs, new knowledge of the role of ment B following diagnosis of small-cell carcinoma of the receptors, enzymes, ion channels and carrier molecules in lung? Less easily both normal physiological processes and disease now permits measured end-points such as quality of life must also be a more focused approach to drug design. Prespecified subgroups of combinatorial chemistry, biotechnology, genomics, high out- patients may be identified and differences in response deter- put screening and computer-aided drug design, new drugs mined. For example, treatment A may be found to be most can now be identified more rationally. The patients’ welfare must be of New chemical entities are tested in animals to investigate their paramount importance. At present, the European guidelines If treatment is not truly randomized, then bias will occur. For require that the effects of the drug should be assessed in two example, the investigator might consider treatment B to be mammalian species (one non-rodent) after two weeks of dos- less well tolerated and thus decide to treat particularly frail ing before a single dose is administered to a human. Multicentre studies are often neces- safety pharmacology and mutagenicity tests will have been sary in order to recruit adequate numbers of patients, and it is assessed. Additional and longer duration studies are conducted essential to ensure that the treatments are fairly compared. The timing, specific tests and treatment A is confined to one centre/hospital and treatment duration of studies may relate to the proposed human usage B to another, many factors may affect the outcome of the in both the clinical trials and eventual indications. It is well recognized For any study, inclusion and exclusion criteria must be defined. This is partly due to patient familiarization factors, whilst also ensuring that the criteria are not so strict with study procedures, whose effect can be minimized by a that the findings will be applicable only to an unrepresenta- placebo ‘run-in’ phase. If these are exclusion criteria, a trial will address a ‘superfit’ Studies should be prospective, randomized, double-blind and elderly population and not a normal population. Parallel-group studies are those in which patients are randomized to receive different treatments. Usually one of the treatments is A ‘double-blind’ design is often desirable to eliminate psycho- the standard, established treatment of choice, i. This whilst the other is an alternative – often a new treatment which is not always possible. In chronic stable diseases, a crossover treatment A and treatment B described above, treatment A design in which each subject acts as his or her own control can consists of regular intravenous infusions whilst treatment B be employed. Intra-individual variability in response is usu- consists of oral medication, the ‘blind’ is broken. The treatment duration is ‘hard’ objective data, this should not be influenced sequence must be evenly balanced to avoid order effects and markedly, whereas softer end-points, such as the state of well- there must be adequate ‘washout’ to prevent a carry-over being, are more easily confounded. This design is theoretically especially important, it may be appropriate to use more elabor- more ‘economical’ in subject numbers, but is often not appli- ate strategies to permit blinding, such as the use of a ‘double cable in practice. In this case patients are randomized to active tablets plus placebo infusion or to active infusion plus placebo tablets. Research papers often quote P values as a measure of whether The number of patients who are withdrawn from each treat- or not an observed difference is ‘significant’. Conventionally, ment and the reason for withdrawal (subjective, objective or the null hypothesis is often rejected if P 0. For example, if in an anti- of the magnitude observed would be expected to occur by hypertensive study comparing two treatments administered chance in less than one in 20 trials – so-called type I error, see for three months only the data from those who completed three Figure 15. To place reliance on a negative result, if 50% of the patients on treatment X withdrew after one week the statistical power of the study should be at least 0.
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